Strawberries in a greenhouse: planting and care
Strawberries are one of the first summer berries. Many people love it, but because of the short growing season and the need for high temperature, you can enjoy the taste of this berry only for a short period of time and not in all climatic zones. If you want to eat berries out of season, you have to buy them in stores, so many consumers are trying to find a more suitable solution to the problem. It may be growing strawberries in greenhouse conditions.
Is it possible to grow strawberries in a greenhouse?
The greenhouse is a special structure that allows you to grow plants all year round. This design is perfect for growing strawberries in it, allowing you to maintain the microclimate necessary for the plant, regardless of the season.
In addition, the greenhouse protects plants from the negative effects of the environment, which allows you to get a better crop. But keep in mind that not all varieties of culture can grow well in greenhouse conditions.
Did you know? Strawberry Pineapple, which everyone is used to calling strawberries, is the most cultivated berry in the world. In the year of its fruits receive about 4 million tons.
There are no separately bred varieties for covered ground, but you can choose the most suitable ones from existing ones.
Advantages and disadvantages of growing strawberries in a greenhouse
Growing strawberries indoors has its advantages and disadvantages.
- The first include:
- significant yield from a small area;
- the crop does not depend on season changes;
- high commercial quality of berries;
- Due to the small area, plant care is simplified.
- Among the shortcomings are worth noting:
- need one-time costs for the construction of the greenhouse and its arrangement;
- energy resources are spent to support the necessary microclimate;
- it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the plant.
The best varieties of strawberries for the greenhouse
Among the existing varieties of strawberries for growing in greenhouses, it is necessary to choose those that are distinguished by early and long fruiting, high productivity, unpretentiousness, high immunity, as well as good keeping quality of the fruits.
They must also be self-pollinated. The varieties described below have the following characteristics.
The variety is distinguished by strong-growing powerful bushes of compact size. The leaves are large, not prone to spotting attacks. Peduncles are long and often, under the weight of the berries, bend to the ground.Berries ripen 30–50 g in size, appear early and evenly. They are conical in shape, bright red in color with a sparkle. They have a pronounced rich strawberry flavor. The pulp is dense, which allows you to store the crop for a long time. From one plant you can get up to 800 g of berries.
The variety is hardy, frost-resistant, drought-resistant. In addition to spotting, it is immune to powdery mildew, a bacterial burn and a number of fungal diseases. It reacts poorly to anthracnose.
It has a medium-spreading bush of small sizes. The leaves are medium, slightly compressed. Peduncles are powerful and rise above the bush by several centimeters; they are able to hold the berry without leaning down.Berries are relatively large, 40 g, with proper care. Their shape is conical with a pronounced neck. Painted in dark red color with shine. The pulp is dense, aromatic, juicy. The taste is sour. Transport well, thanks to the elastic structure.
Fruiting early - in a greenhouse, the first crop can be harvested in mid-May. It has good immunity to diseases and pests. It is resistant to frost.
Did you know? The word "strawberry" comes from the word "club", meaning "spherical, round." So in Russia previously called a wild variety of plants, i.e., strawberries, and by the end of the century before last, the name was fixed to cultivated berry.
The variety adapts well in a new place, takes root quickly. Gives large fruits, weighing 40-60 g, some specimens can weigh 100 g. The taste characteristics of the berries are excellent, they tolerate transportation well and are suitable for use in any form.From one bush you can collect about 1,500 g of berries per season. The variety is characterized by increased frost resistance - tolerates temperatures up to -23 ° C. It has a high immunity to gray rot, powdery mildew, brown spotting.
Powerful compact bushes have a branched root system. They are covered with large green foliage. Strong flower stalks rise above them, withstanding a berry weighing about 40 g.The shape of the strawberry Honey is conical. The pulp is medium-dense, uniform. At the beginning of the season, it has a sweet and sour taste, which at the end of the season becomes more intense and sweet; the berry itself can shred.
Fruits are stored after harvesting fresh for 3 days, well tolerate transportation. The plant is immune to popular diseases, has good frost and heat resistance.
The variety has a medium ripening period, characterized by a high intensity of bush growth. Its shape is erect, which makes it easy to detect and collect all ripe berries. 70–80% of the fruit when ripe is more than 35 mm in length.Their shape is aligned-conical, the first crop may be angular. The skin is strong, bright orange-red color with shine. The pulp is dense, elastic, juicy with a pleasant taste. The seeds covering the surface of the berry slightly protrude. Alice is immune to fungal diseases, powdery mildew. Unpretentious to the soil and growing conditions.
Bush Christine grows powerful, medium-sized. Peduncles of medium density, elastic and long. Despite their strength, they can not keep a large fruit on weight, but they have enough strength to grow a good harvest.Since flower stalks are longer than foliage, berries are clearly visible on the bush and are easy to pick. The berry itself is orange-red in color, dense, even, with smooth skin. Her form is classic. Small seeds densely cover the surface of the fruit.
The stem is poorly separated, and even if it can be done, the berry will remain dry for a long time. Because of this, her keeping rates are high.
Important! Kristin is not for lovers of soft berries, but thanks to its versatility and pleasant taste, it occupies a leading position among other varieties.
Methods for growing strawberries in a greenhouse
There are several ways to grow strawberries in a greenhouse:
- On the ground. This is a traditional method of growing, in which beds from a special substrate are formed in the greenhouse. They planted strawberry bushes. This method is most popular because of its simplicity.
- In the bags. With this method, strawberries are also grown in the ground, but the garden bed is not formed in the greenhouse itself, but in a dense plastic bag. It must be voluminous so that the plant has enough free space. Bags with plants are suspended from the ceiling, forming hanging beds. This method is more productive than the first, due to the fact that the fruits do not come into contact with the soil, which means that they are not affected by rot.
- Dutch method. Similar to the previous method, only bags of berries are located on the shelves. Holes are made in the bags so that the berries can be outside and it is more convenient to pick them.
- Hydroponics. This method is fundamentally different from the rest, since the soil is not used for growing crops. Strawberry receives all the nutrients from a special liquid containing a vitamin-mineral complex and other substances necessary for growth and development. This method is quite complicated and costly, as it requires the availability of certain equipment and the corresponding skills and knowledge.
Features of planting and further care
The optimal time for planting strawberries in the greenhouse must be selected taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region. Usually landing is carried out from mid-September to mid-October. According to the lunar calendar, a neutral day is chosen.To get a good harvest, you must follow certain rules when planting a crop:
- Soil preparation. Mix 620 kg of straw, 280 kg of chicken droppings, 6 kg of crushed chalk, 3 kg of urea, 25 kg of gypsum. The output will be a ton of fertile mixture.
- Density Calculation. Leave 0.3 m between rows and 0.25 m between bushes. Planting depth - 8–10 cm. On vertical beds, planting is carried out in a checkerboard pattern.
- The amount of substrate. One adult plant needs 3-5 liters of soil.
- Temperature mode. When planting seedlings, maintain the temperature at + 12 ° C, no more. With the growth of the bush, the level is increased to + 20 ° C. During flowering, it is necessary to maintain +20 ... + 24 ° C.
- Humidity. Ideal moisture indicators during planting - about 85%, during flowering - not higher than 70%. Humidity control can be done through windows or ventilation holes in the greenhouse.
- Lighting. Its mode: 8–11 and 17–20 hours. At an eight-hour daylight, flowering occurs after 14 days, fruiting after 48 days. At a 16-hour daylight, all processes are accelerated and take 10 and 35 days, respectively. Daylight lamps must be placed at a height of one meter from the beds.
Important! When preparing the substrate, it is necessary to leave the mixture for a week so that it “reaches”.
Features strawberry care:
- Watering. It is advisable to use a drip system so that moisture does not get on the leaves and berries. Plants are watered not often and not abundantly. Before the ovary appears, it is enough to irrigate the plantings once a week. With the beginning of fruiting, the interval between irrigation procedures increases to 10 days.
- Fertilizers. You need to make them with the beginning of the flowering period. It is advisable to use a liquid nutrient mixture. It can be prepared in advance: for 10 liters of water you need to take 10 g of calcium nitrate, 15 g of potassium salt, 20 g of superphosphate. Plants are fed this mixture once a week. Every 14 days, a potassium superphosphate complex should be added.
- Pollination. Although most varieties suitable for indoor cultivation are self-pollinated, artificial pollination does not hinder them (for better fruiting). The pollination procedure is carried out using a soft dry brush, which is carried out on the stamen, and then on the pestle. All manipulations need to be performed 2-3 times a day.
Diseases, pests and their control
The greenhouse isolates strawberries from the outside world, and therefore from pests access to it. But illnesses can still attack her. They usually arise due to non-compliance with the rules for caring for the crop.
Among the diseases found:
To prevent the occurrence of ailments, it is necessary to regularly air the greenhouse in order to avoid an increase in humidity. Also for prophylactic purposes should be treated with fungicides.
As you can see, growing strawberries in a greenhouse is a troublesome and costly affair. But all the efforts and resources expended quickly pay off due to the opportunity to get a quality harvest of delicious berries all year round.