Features of apricot cultivation Polessky large-fruited and caring for it
When choosing an apricot variety for planting in his own personal plot, the owner usually tries to find the most successful compromise between unpretentiousness and ease of care, yield and taste characteristics of the fruit. An excellent choice in this regard can be the Polessky Krupnoplodny variety, which will be discussed in this review, however, we make a reservation right away, this tree is not suitable for cultivation in the northern regions.
Description apricot variety Polessky large-fruited
Apricot Polessky large-fruited was bred in 1964 by a group of scientists from the Institute of Horticulture of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences (settlement of Novosyolki, Kiev region) by crossing two parent lines:
- Polessky harvest, also related to the achievements of the Kiev selection;
- high-grade 4345.
It is interesting that initially the new variety, which later became one of the most popular in Ukraine, was given the name Kitaevsky or variety No. 5528. However, in 1985 this apricot was included in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Growing in Ukraine under its current name.
Did you know? Despite the fact that Polesie is strongly associated with Belarus, in reality this historical and geographical region is located on the territory of four states - Ukraine, Poland, Russia and Belarus.
Frost resistance of Polesye large-fruited corresponds to zones 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b. This means that the tree is able to withstand a temperature drop of -28.9 ° C, so, from the point of view of regionalization, it is perfectly suitable for all regions of Ukraine - from Transcarpathia to Lugansk and from Chernigov to Odessa and Crimea.
Apricot tree Polessky large-fruited is distinguished by such characteristics:
- growth force - high in the early years and gradually decreasing from the moment it enters the phase of active fruiting;
- crown height and diameter - 4–5 m;
- crown - spherical or round-elongated, strongly thickened and spreading;
- barrel thickness - average;
- bark - gray, with pronounced tuberosity, on skeletal branches and trunk is darker than on younger branches;
- shoots of the current year - brown or green with the presence of subcutaneous dots, cranked type;
- the kidneys - beige, located at an angle to the branch, large, grow in bunches of three pieces;
- leaves - large (6–9 cm), oval with a tapering tip and small teeth around the perimeter, the plate is smooth and thin, dark green on the front side, and whitish on the back;
- petioles - long, dark green with a red tint;
- the flowers - light pink color, large sizes (diameter up to 4 cm), with closed oval petals, a cup in the shape of a glass and a short green peduncle;
- fruiting type - on spears, bouquet branches and annual shoots.
The description of the fruits of the Polissya large-fruited variety is given in the table:
|Dimensions||Very large, weighing 35–55 g, sometimes up to 70–80 g|
|The form||Oval or round, slightly flattened, in some cases, a beak-like outgrowth is present in the upper part|
|Skin||Golden orange with a pronounced blush, smooth, with a slight pubescence|
|Pulp||Orange or yellow, with a high content of juice, dense, cracking slightly when cracked, easily moves away from the bone|
|Bone||Small or medium sized, ribbed, flat and almost round; edible sweet core|
|Taste||Sweet and sour, tender|
|Tasting score on a five-point scale||4,0–4,25|
|The content of sugar, acid and solids,%||11,8/2,2/16,6|
Large-fruited Polessky begins to bloom in April, earlier than many other fruit trees, the duration of the flowering period is 10 days. The period of mass harvesting begins in late July or early August.
The yield of the variety is very high: entering the fruiting phase in the third year of life, the seedling first gives a small number of fruits, but after 3-4 years you can collect from 10 to 15 kg of fruits from one tree, after which these indicators gradually increase, reaching a few more years 50–55 kg, which for the apricot is a very worthy result.
Did you know? The word "apricot" has a complex etymology, rooted in ancient Rome, from where it fell into the Arabic language and only then - into European and then into Russian, where it has been used since the 18th century.
Another important characteristic of Polesie large-fruited is its high ability to self-pollination. The lack of need for additional planting of pollinators is especially attractive for owners of small household plots. Nevertheless, as experienced gardeners note, the presence on the site of well-selected varieties, flowering at the same time as Polesskiy large-fruited, allows to increase apricot productivity by a factor of two, and sometimes even three.
Among the best pollinators for the variety are:
- Golden anniversary;
- Polessky is productive.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- In Polesie large-fruited apricot, Ukrainian breeders managed to consolidate such undeniable advantages as:
- early maturity (earlier entry into the fruiting phase);
- very high yields and regularity;
- large-fruited (of all apricots of Ukrainian selection, this particular variety produces the largest fruits);
- high commodity characteristics of fruits, good indicators of shelf life and transportability;
- resistance to return frosts even if they found a tree in the flowering phase;
- the ability of wood to quickly recover in case of frostbite;
- resistance of reproductive kidneys to freezing;
- lack of tendency of fruits to crack, even in conditions of high humidity;
- rather early ripening periods (the fruits of Polessky large-fruited reach biological ripeness almost 2 weeks earlier than the Krasnoshchechka, popular in Ukraine);
- drought tolerance and tolerance to stagnation of water on the surface of the earth (for apricots - a rarity);
- universal purpose of the fruit;
- good immunity in fruit rot, holey spotting and moniliosis, relative resistance to moth.
- Varieties have a few flaws. These may include:
- a tendency to form tops (vertically growing shoots), which requires regular and time-consuming pruning;
- there are serious restrictions in regionalization - for cultivation in the middle lane of the European part of the Russian Federation and especially in regions with colder climates, the winter hardiness of Polessky apricot is large too low.
Apricot planting requirements
Apricot should be planted in the brightest and warmest place that can be found on the site. In addition, you need to try to arrange protection for the tree from the winds, especially of the northern direction, since a young seedling can suffer from them.
The drought of the Polessky large-fruited is not so terrible as waterlogging, which also needs to be considered when choosing a place for planting.
Important! The winter hardiness of a variety depends heavily on the topography of the area where the tree is grown: if a seedling is planted on a gentle or even mountain slope with low groundwater, it tolerates even severe frosts quite well, but when planted on the banks of rivers or other water bodies, the tree very often freezes with seemingly mild winters.
It is interesting that the resistance of the tree to sunburns also decreases in the wetlands and increases in the hilly areas.
Partially solve this problem helps the purchase of seedlings grafted on a more winter-hardy and burn-resistant variety, in which case the zoning zone of Polesye large-fruited significantly expanded.
Video: Apricot Planting Instructions
All fruit trees can be planted either in late autumn or in early spring. The first option has a number of undeniable advantages, but it is not suitable for regions with harsh winters, where severe frosts can destroy a fragile tree. Since Polessky large-fruited is not intended for cultivation in such climatic conditions, you can not think about choosing the optimal planting period - this is definitely autumn.
In relation to a more specific time, one needs to be guided by the observance of two conditions:
- After planting, the aerial part of the seedling should not start growing, otherwise young shoots will inevitably freeze out, and this will automatically sharply reduce the plant's viability and increase the likelihood that it will not survive the winter.
- The root system must have time to gain a foothold in a new place before the onset of frost, then cooling the tree will not bring harm.
Important! The gardener needs to try to plant an apricot about 3-4 weeks before the first frost.
In Ukraine, where the Polessky large-fruited variety is zoned, this period can fluctuate from mid-October to mid-November, depending on the region and current weather conditions, which may vary from year to year.
Preparing a pit for a seedling
One of the important conditions for the normal development of the fruit tree is the proper preparation of the pit. It is important to do this work in advance so that the soil inside the pit has time to “acquire” the necessary microorganisms for the plant and settle down. It is good if the pit is dug in the spring, but the minimum acceptable time is two weeks before landing.
The dimensions of the pit (depth and diameter) are inversely proportional to the original soil composition: the closer it is to the parameters that apricot needs, the smaller the pit can be and vice versa
Polesye large-fruited is less demanding on the soil than many other apricot varieties, however, it is still preferable to a light, loose and fertile substrate with a neutral reaction (pH in the range of 6.7–7.0), for example, sandstone or loam. In such soil, it is enough to dig a hole measuring 70x70 cm.
If the soil is heavy, acidified, salty or alkaline, these parameters should be increased by 30–40% and, when preparing the soil mixture, make appropriate adjustments to it (acidity can be reduced with limestone, chalk or even eggshells, raised with peat, sphagnum or wood ash, heavy soils are easiest to lighten by diluting them with sand).
Important! As a basis for preparing a nutritious soil mixture, it is best to use not all the land that was removed from the pit, but only its upper layer, since the lower one is infertile.
Regardless of whether any of the additional components described above were added to the ground, it must be enriched with organic and mineral fertilizers. However, in order not to burn the roots of a young seedling, not all prepared land is used for this purpose, but only part of it (about half). You need to add to it:
- compost, rotted manure or humus - 2-3 buckets;
- vermicompost - 300-400 g;
- superphosphate - 200-300 g;
- potassium sulfate - 100-150 g (if ash was added to the soil to acidify it, the amount of potash fertilizers should be reduced, since the ash contains enough “own” potassium).
The resulting nutrient mixture is poured into the pit and left to stand, and the rest of the earth is left on the surface before planting
How to plant
The classical planting technique of Polesye large-fruited is standard, however, in order for the seedling to take root better, some experts recommend a little preliminary training:
- immerse the tree in water at 1/3 of the height and leave to soak for 24–48 hours;
- prepare a liquid slurry from clay, manure and water, lower the roots of the seedling into it, then extract and allow to dry a little;
- trim the tips of each root process to stimulate their growth.
Important! When planting an apricot, be sure to ensure that the root neck is not deepened.
The landing procedure is as follows:
- The nutrient soil mixture at the bottom of the pit is raked to the center to form a small hill that coincides in height with the size of the root system of the seedling.
- Sprinkle the hill with a small layer of the earth remaining during the preparation of the pit (without fertilizers).
- Stepping back a little from the center of the hill, drive a wooden pole or other support into the pit, to which you can later tie a seedling for stability.
- Place the seedling in the pit with the vaccination site to the south, spread the root processes along the slopes of the mound.
- Holding the tree, begin to fill the hole with the remaining soil, constantly tamping it to avoid the formation of internal voids.
- When the ground level reaches the root neck (the place where the root goes into the trunk), stop the digging and tamp the surface again.
- Tie a seedling to a support (you can not use a wire in this case, it can damage the delicate bark).
- Water the tree abundantly.
Apricots are much more sensitive to stagnation of moisture in the roots than most other fruit trees, so you should not make boards around the circumference around the planting pit to hold water. Moreover, many experienced gardeners recommend planting these trees not in a pit, but on a hill so that the water does not just stagnate around the trunk, but flows down from a gentle slope. This technique is not widespread, but it is still worth knowing about its existence.
Tree Care Features
Caring for apricot varieties Polessky large-fruited is not particularly difficult. Perhaps the main and most complex element of this process is regular pruning, it is also important to timely process the tree from diseases and pests, all other procedures are important, but not so critical.
Video: Apricot Care
To ensure the variety of yield indicators declared by the authors, the apricot must be correctly formed and then pruned every year - thinning, sanitary, and when the fruiting level of the tree begins to decline, it is rejuvenating. The stronger the apricot, the better it will bear fruit and the larger the fruit will form.
Important! In order for the crown to form sparse, and the branches grow away from the trunk and, thus, are better illuminated, they should always be cut above the external kidney, and not above the internal one.
A feature of the apricot tree Polessky large-fruited is a very large number of branches directed almost vertically upwards. Fruits are not formed on such shoots, however, they take away excess forces from the plant and, in addition, obscure the crown, therefore they should be constantly removed by cutting “into a ring” (at the very junction of the branch with the trunk, without leaving a stump).
In addition to tops, it is necessary to remove damaged, frozen, diseased branches, as well as those shoots that grow too close to each other, intersect or are directed to the center of the crown
The best time for pruning is the end of winter or early spring, before the active sap flow in the aerial parts of the tree. For the procedure, it is important to choose a dry and possibly sunny day. The minus temperature is acceptable, but it is better that the frost is not lower than -5ºС. After trimming, all sections should be treated with iron or copper sulphate to avoid infection in them, and large saw cuts, in addition, “sealed” with garden var.
Large-fruited apricot Polessky can be fed several times during the season, but it should be remembered that overdoing it in this matter is much more dangerous than ignoring the procedure.
If, during planting, the soil mixture was prepared correctly, the nutrients in the seedling will last for two years. Further fertilizer application is carried out according to the standard scheme:
- in spring - nitrogen fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate, chicken droppings, manure);
- in summer - foliar top dressing with microelements (boron, magnesium, zinc, etc.), in August organic matter is also added;
- in the fall - potash and phosphate fertilizers, if necessary, calcium is also added.
During the first 4–5 years after planting an apricot, the area of fertilizing by the root method covers only the trunk circle. Then, as the root system of the tree develops, this territory is gradually beginning to increase, adding approximately one square meter every 2 years.
Estimated amount of top dressing per 1 sq. m "useful" area is:
- humus - 4 kg;
- nitrogen - 6 g;
- potassium - 5 g;
- phosphorus - 8 g.
Did you know? The Latin name for the apricot is praecoqua. Initially, it consisted of the addition of the prefix “prae-” (before) to the verb “coquere” (to get ready, keep up to date) - in this way the Roman writer Pliny emphasized the difference between apricot and the later ripened peach.
Apricot is a drought-tolerant tree, and in Polesye large-fruited this quality is even better than in many other varieties, therefore, the plant does not need abundant and regular watering, and the abundance of moisture can do more harm to the tree than its lack. In addition, waterlogging negatively affects the taste characteristics of fruits - they become less sweet and worse stored.
On dry days, watering the apricot is necessary, especially for young seedlings, as well as the period of formation of ovaries. At the same time, watering the tree is rare, but plentiful, using 2-3 buckets of water per adult apricot and 1-2 buckets per seedling at a time.
Water should have an ambient temperature, otherwise overcooling of the root system can reduce its immunity to fungal infections.
Large-fruited apricot Polessky has good immunity, but the tree still needs protection from diseases and pests.
Among the possible problems that arise during the cultivation of apricot, it is necessary, in particular, to name:
|The main diseases of apricot:||Pests parasitizing on apricot:|
To prevent infection, twice in the spring and once in the fall, the tree should be treated with drugs that have a systemic fungicidal and insecticidal effect. Very good results are given by the Ukrainian insecticidal fungus Brunka, which has three active ingredients in its composition, all of which have low toxicity and are allowed in most European countries.
Less environmentally friendly, but, as some gardeners believe, a more reliable option is to use such "heavy" pesticides as "Clean Garden", "Clean Trunk", "HOM", "Chorus", "Skor", etc. They they are used if the disease has already affected the tree.
What you need to know about winter care
Subject to the recommendations regarding the cultivation zone, Polessky large-fruited does not need shelter for the winter. Moreover, even such usual garden care activities as abundant pre-winter irrigation and thorough mulching of the near-stem circle should be carried out with great caution in relation to apricot.
The fact is that this type of fruit tree is much stronger than from frost, it suffers from heating and exfoliation of wood, and this happens in winter or early spring. The reason for this phenomenon lies in the presence of moisture in the lower part of the trunk.
In some cases, it is even possible to rot the wood in a ring, as a result of which the aboveground part may die, remaining “without connection” with the roots. Excessive shelter, especially if dark materials are used, along with stagnation of melt water in the near-stem circle, cause damage to the bark.
Important! Having carefully wrapped up a young apricot in the fall and faced with the fact that the tree died in the spring, many inexperienced gardeners decide that the tree was killed by frost, after which the seedlings begin to defend with a vengeance, exacerbating the problem.
In order to prepare the apricot for winter, it is enough just to carefully remove the fallen leaves and the remnants of the fruit from the area around the tree, because in such organics the carriers of infections and pests winter. If the near-stem circle is seeded with lawn grass (which is very welcome), it will become the best protection for the root system from frost, if it is not, chopped pieces of turf or other loose material can be used as mulch. After snow falls around the trunk, it is advisable to build a warming snowdrift, but with the advent of spring, snow must be cleaned before it begins to melt.
Otherwise, the willingness of a seedling or an adult tree to successfully survive the winter directly depends on how competently the tree was taken care of throughout the season.
Harvesting and storage
The merits of the Polessky large-fruited variety are often attributed to good fruit keeping quality and even note their ability to maintain their presentation and taste for seven days after collection, however, this information should still be treated with skepticism.
Important! Apricots, regardless of variety, are perishable fruits, and, unlike plums, it is not recommended to collect them until full biological maturity, because in this case, although they become soft after a few days, they significantly lose their taste and aroma .
It is advisable to consume or use for processing the crop of Polesye large-fruited as quickly as possible, ideally - on the day of collection or, as a last resort, during the day after that.
In order to extend the shelf life of apricots by several days, it is very important to select for these purposes only those specimens that were removed from the tree and not lifted from the ground, and are also completely intact and dense over the entire area. It is better to put the crop not in buckets or baskets, but in boxes, laying paper towels or other similar material between the layers of fruit, eliminating direct contact between the fruits.
As for the directions of use of the crop, the fruits of Polesye large-fruited are equally well suited for fresh consumption, cooking pies, stewed fruit, jams (“aerobatics” - in the form of whole fruits stuffed with kernels extracted from seeds), jams, marmalades and jelly. Of those fruits that have begun to lose their shape, but still retain freshness, you can squeeze the juice, and true connoisseurs use this raw material to make homemade wines and distillates.
Did you know? In the Ararat Valley, using the technology similar to the production of brandy, an authentic alcoholic drink Abrikon is produced with a strength of 44%. Carefully selected local apricots are squeezed to produce juice, which is fermented with special yeast cultures, distilled into alcohol, aged in oak barrels and then blended.
For Ukrainians and residents of other regions with a relatively mild climate, apricot Polessky large-fruited is a real find.Early, regular and very plentiful fruiting, excellent marketability and taste characteristics of the fruit, complemented by the unpretentiousness of the tree and the absence of special difficulties in its cultivation make this variety deservedly popular and loved by both professional farmers and owners of personal household plots. When using a winter-hardy stock, Polessky large-fruited can be grown in the middle zone of Russia, but in this case the risk of damage to wood and fruit buds as a result of severe frosts remains.