Description of apricot variety Ulyanikhinsky, the rules for its cultivation
Ulyanikhinsky variety is one of the most common types of apricots that are grown by gardeners in large and small suburban areas. These powerful trees annually give a generous crop of sweet fruits that can be used fresh and for the preparation of preservation. The article presents the description and main characteristics of the Ulyanikhinsky cultivar, lists the rules for planting apricot seedlings, recommendations for caring for trees and harvesting, as well as methods for combating possible diseases and pests of the crop.
Description of apricot variety Ulyanikhinsky
The indicated species was named after the Russian amateur breeder L. M. Ulyanikhin, received this variety in the early 2000s. Working to create a new variety of culture, the gardener crossed the apricot Krasnoshchekiy with a hybrid descendant of the varieties Comrade and Satser, wanting to get a new frost-resistant and unpretentious look in the care.
Did you know? Apricot seeds are not recommended for food - they contain amygdalin, which, after entering the intestine, is transformed into toxic hydrocyanic acid.
Description of the variety Ulyanikhinsky is presented below:
- Trees are characterized by a high growth rate - their height is 3-4 m. The crown is moderately thick and round, and its diameter can reach 3 m.
- Apricot branches grow vertically and are covered with red-brown bark. On them are medium-sized green ovoid leaves with a pointed apex and large serrated edges.
- The cone-shaped buds of the tree are painted dark brown and are not pressed to the shoot. Fruiting occurs on last year's growths and bouquet branches.
- Apricot flowering of the variety in question begins even before the leaves bloom and falls in April. Single white flowers consisting of 5 oval petals appear on the tree.
- Ripe fruits have an oval-rounded shape, and their surface is covered with a velvety yellow skin with a dotted pink-red blush. The weight of one apricot is about 30 g.
- The inside of the fruit has a yellow-orange color, it is very juicy. It has a sweet taste with a slight acidity and exudes a pleasant aroma. Inside the pulp is a medium-sized stone, which is easily separated from the fetus.
Many gardeners choose the Ulyanikhinsky variety for planting due to the fact that it has a number of qualities that distinguish it from other varieties of this culture.
The main characteristics of this type of fruit tree are listed below:
- Ulyanikhinsky apricot belongs to self-fertile trees and does not need pollinators, but the crop yield increases markedly when grown next to the Michurinsky variety, Uspekh and Comrade;
- mid-season variety - the crop can be removed from the tree at the end of July;
- fruiting is regular and begins 3 years after planting a seedling;
- high productivity - 80–100 kg per tree;
- the taste qualities of the described variety were rated 4 out of 5;
- the pulp contains about 10% sugar and only 1.1% acids.
- The main advantages of the variety are:
- high frost resistance;
- good immunity to diseases and pests;
- excellent presentation and taste of apricots;
- high productivity and regular fruiting;
- good keeping and transportability of fruits;
- versatility of crop use.
- The disadvantages of this variety of gardeners include such qualities:
- the need for pruning to limit tree growth;
- the tendency of the fruit to fall;
- tree sensitivity to waterlogged soil;
- reduction in the size of apricots in violation of the rules of care.
Rules for planting apricot seedlings Ulyanikhinsky
Ulyanikhinsky apricot cultivation begins with the proper planting of seedlings. In order for young trees to successfully take root in the soil, it is necessary to carry out a number of measures to prepare the site and buy high-quality planting material. It is equally important to carry out the planting procedure at the right time and choose the right place for the trees where they will feel most comfortable.
Important! At aUlyanikhinsky briquette spreading crown, so trees need to be planted at a distance of at least 3–4 m from structures and other trees.
Dates and place of landing
Experienced gardeners are advised to plant apricot of the described variety in late September - first half of Octoberso that the tree has time to take root before the onset of cold weather and by spring it is already strong enough. But if the cultivation of the Ulyanikhinsky variety is carried out in the northern regions with a cold climate, then the tree planted in autumn will not have time to adapt to new conditions and may die from winter frosts - in this case, it is better to postpone the planting in the second half of April.
You need to choose a place for apricot by the following criteria:
- trees need a lot of light - under the sun's rays, the fruits are large and sweet, and their ripening is more uniform;
- the place for planting should not be in a draft - apricot does not tolerate cold gusts of wind and loses immunity to diseases;
- the level of groundwater in the area should be at least 3 m - the roots of the tree do not respond well to waterlogged soil;
- For the cultivation of this variety, loose loamy soil of neutral or low acidity is best suited - it passes air, moisture and solar heat well to the roots.
Site preparation and planting material
Seedlings of this variety are best purchased in specialized stores or from trusted sellers in order to avoid buying a poor-quality specimen with damaged roots or trunk. When planting apricot Ulyanikhinsky, it is recommended to use seedlings at the age of 1 year - they are best taken root in open ground.
When choosing a young tree, you need to pay attention to its appearance:
- high-quality seedlings bark on the trunk is smooth and even - it does not have inflows, cracks and traces of damage by pests;
- the vaccination site should be clearly visible on the trunk, and the lateral branches of a stronger tree should look thick and give in to easy bending;
- a good seedling has a branched root system of the fibrous type - it consists of many small roots with an elastic surface, without mechanical damage and rot.
A plot for growing apricots is prepared in advance by digging a planting hole for each seedling.
The basic rules for preparing a tree planting site are listed below:
- In the fall, after harvesting, the site must be cleaned of rubbish and dug up.
- If planting is planned for spring, then pits are prepared in the fall, so that the earth has time to settle in them, and the fertilizers applied are well dissolved in the soil.
- During the autumn planting of the Ulyanikhinsky variety, planting pits are prepared in no less than 3-4 weeks.
- The size of each recess should be 80 × 80 × 80 cm.
- A 5 cm thick drainage layer is laid at the bottom of the recess - for this, you can use broken brick, pebbles or gravel.
- 2 buckets of mullein, 250 g of wood ash, 350 g of potassium sulphate and 650 g of superphosphate are added to the upper fertile soil layer obtained by digging a hole; the mixture is poured onto the bottom of the hole in the form of a knoll.
- 10-15 l of water is poured into the recess and a wooden stake is hammered into it to garter a young tree.
Pits prepared in this way are left until planting.
Important! Before planting, the roots of a seedling of the Ulyanikhinsky variety are dipped in a semi-liquid mixture of water and clay, and also leaves are removed from the tree so that they do not draw moisture from the trunk.
The process of planting young seedlings
It is recommended to plant Ulyanikhinsky apricot seedlings on the site in dry and sunny weather, so that the earth is moderately moist and warmed well by the sun. The landing procedure is not particularly difficult, but requires compliance with certain rules.
The step-by-step instructions for planting the Ulyanikhinsky variety are presented below:
- Place the prepared seedling in the pit so that its root neck is located at a height of 7-10 cm above the soil surface.
- Spread the roots of the tree on the surface of a mound of nutrient soil. Sprinkle them on top with the remaining loose earth.
- Lightly compact the soil around the apricot, forming the area of the trunk circle. Tie a tree to a wooden support.
- Form a low rim of soil around the seedling. Water the young apricot, spending 20-30 liters of water on it.
- After completely absorbing the liquid, mulch the trunk circle with peat or dry sawdust.
Video: apricot planting instructions
Rules for care after landing
Ulyanikhinsky variety can be grown in almost any climatic conditions. But in order to collect a lot of sweet and beautiful fruits from trees every year, you need to water and feed apricots in a timely manner, pay attention to their proper pruning, identify diseases and pests, and carry out preparations for wintering. Read more about these care rules later in the article.
Important! If during the planting of the Ulyanikhinsky apricot a sufficient amount of fertilizer was applied to the soil, then the next time the trees need to be fed only 3 years after planting.
Watering and fertilizer
During prolonged droughts, apricots must be watered to avoid a decrease in yield. The variety is sensitive to soil moisture and negatively reacts to both a lack of water and its excess, therefore, when watering trees, you must adhere to such general recommendations:
- During the season, each apricot should be watered at least 3 times - before flowering, during the formation of the ovaries and 10-14 days before the harvest ripens.
- For irrigation of a young seedling that has not reached the fruiting period, 40–50 l of water is required, and for an adult tree this amount increases to 60–80 l.
- During prolonged droughts, watering can be increased so that the earth around the tree does not dry out too much.
- In the fall, after harvesting, water-charging irrigation is carried out - it saturates the roots with moisture and helps the tree better survive the winter.
- After each irrigation, it is recommended to mulch the surface of the trunk circle with wood sawdust or peat - this will reduce the evaporation of moisture from the soil.
The amount of nutrients in the soil affects the productivity of apricot of the Ulyanikhinsky variety; therefore, when growing trees, they need to be regularly fed with fertilizers. The basic rules for feeding are listed below:
- Before flowering, each apricot is watered with a liquid solution of 30 liters of water, 6 tbsp. l urea and 6 tbsp. potassium sulfate.
- In May, after buds are opened, a nutrient solution of 5 l of water and 10 g of urea is introduced under each tree.
- After flowering is completed, the apricots are fertilized with a mixture of mullein and superphosphate (10 g of water requires 50 g of superphosphate and 3 l of mullein).
- In early June, foliar top dressing is carried out by spraying the tree crown with a 3% urea solution.
- At the end of September, each apricot is watered with a solution prepared from 30 liters of water, 6 tbsp. potassium chloride and 9 tbsp. superphosphate.
- Every 2-3 years, 15 kg of fresh manure is made under each tree - the procedure is carried out during the autumn digging of the trunk circle.
Ulyanikhinsky trees are characterized by a very voluminous crown, which can impede the free access of the sun's rays to the fruits. As a result of this, apricots become smaller, their palatability deteriorates, and the ripening time of the crop increases. To give the crown of the tree a neat shape, as well as eliminate excessive thickening, shaping and sanitary trimming are carried out annually.
The basic rules for conducting such a procedure are listed below:
- For the first time, the seedling is cut after planting, removing its tip at a height of about 40 cm from the soil surface.
- The following year, a tree stem and the first level of skeletal branches are formed - for this, 2-3 strong shoots are selected at a distance of about 90 cm from the ground and cut them in half, and the remaining branches are removed. The top of the central conductor is cut off at a level of 25 cm above the skeletal branches.
- In the second year after planting, the main conductor is again shortened to the same length and the second tier of skeletal branches is similarly formed, placing it at a distance of about 40 cm from the lower tier. In this case, the main shoots are cut in half, and all small branches are removed.
- In the third year after planting, the formation of the crown is completed - for the last tier, select some of the strongest shoots and cut them by half, and small and vertical branches are removed. The main conductor is cut above the level of the last upper branch.
- In late autumn, after harvesting on apricot, all damaged and dried shoots are removed, as well as small branches that grow at an acute angle or are directed inside the crown.
- Wood pruning is carried out with a sharp tool, disinfected with alcohol, and all places of the cuts are coated with garden var.
Important! The formation of the crown of apricot is carried out during the first 3-4 years after planting and carry out this procedure at the very beginning of spring, before the sap flow.
Protection against diseases and pests
Ulyanikhinsky variety has good immunity against diseases and pests, but if the rules of care are not followed, it can still be affected by them. If the gardener was not able to prevent the occurrence of the problem, then he needs to try to eliminate it at an early stage in order to preserve the entire crop without losses. The apricot of the described variety can be threatened by such infections and insects:
- Moth This gray-brown butterfly reproduces a generation of small pink larvae that gnaw through long passages in the pulp of fruits and damage the bone. A sign of the appearance of the codling moth is small circular holes on the surface of apricots, worming flesh and further decay of the fruit. To control the pest, the Avant preparation is used before flowering, and Kinmix can be used after flowering.
- Podkorovaya leaflet. In early June, this butterfly lays eggs in the cracks of the tree bark, and the caterpillars that emerged from them gnaw holes in the apricot wood. You can notice the pest by the presence of piles of glued excrement and the appearance of drops of gum on the surface of the tree trunk, and sometimes pale green caterpillars with a brown head are also visible on the bark. Before flowering and after harvesting, the leafworm can be controlled by spraying the stem with Chlorofos solution, and at the stage of ripening the crop, the larvae are removed manually along with the affected areas of the bark.
- Aphid. Insects and their larvae feed on the juice of apricot leaves and cover their surfaces with a sticky coating - paddy. At the same time, favorable conditions for the multiplication of the fungus are created on the leaf, as a result of which the sticky coating becomes dark in color, and the green mass curls and falls off. You can cope with insects before buds are opened with the help of Actellik, and after flowering is completed, the tree is treated with Fitaverm.
- Moniliosis (gray rot). The source of the disease is a fungus that covers the shoots and fruits with a fluffy coating of gray.Over time, bulky pads containing spores of the fungus form in the affected areas, and the fruits rot and crumble, but continue to be a source of infection. To fix the problem, all infected areas must be removed from the tree and destroyed, and the crown and soil should be treated with copper chloride (5 g of water per 5 l of water).
- Gnomoniasis (brown leaf spot). A sign of the disease are yellow spots on the leaves of the tree, which gradually increase in size and acquire a brown color. The affected leaf dries and falls, and the infection passes to the fruit - unripe apricots are deformed and prematurely showered from the tree. The leaves and fruits infected with the disease are removed from the tree, and the crown is irrigated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Kleasterosporiosis (perforated spotting). The infection affects the green mass, buds and fruits of the tree. Light brown spots with a red border are formed on the leaves, which die off after a few days - through holes appear in their place. Fruits are covered with convex brown spots and become unsuitable for consumption. To combat hole spotting, apricots are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid, and infected leaves and fruits are removed.
To prevent these difficulties, it is recommended to carry out such actions:
- clean the surface of the trunk circle from debris, weeds, fallen leaves and fruits;
- every autumn dig the earth around the trunk to a depth of at least 30 cm;
- remove old and damaged areas of the cortex;
- in early spring, to whitewash the stem and the bases of the lower skeletal branches of apricot with slaked lime solution;
- follow the schedule of watering and fertilizing;
- carry out annual pruning of branches.
Did you know? 200 g of fresh apricots contains the daily dose of vitamin A necessary for an adult.
Preparing for wintering
The Ulyanikhinsky variety tolerates winter well, but with a significant decrease in air temperature, it is recommended to prepare shelter for the trees. It will not only protect the bark and branches of the apricot from freezing, but also prevent the occurrence of damage to the wood by rodents.
General preparation of trees for wintering includes such actions:
- The stamp is covered with several layers of burlap or thick cardboard for thermal insulation, and a grid is attached on top to protect the trunk from being eaten by hares.
- Trees that have not reached the beginning of fruiting are tied with a layer of burlap over the entire height - young seedlings are more sensitive to frost, and their thin branches can become food for rodents.
- The surface of the trunk circle must be cleaned of weeds and debris, and then dug up to destroy the pest larvae wintering in the ground.
- It is recommended to mulch the soil around the trunk with a dense layer of needles, peat or humus to protect the roots from freezing - the thickness of the mulch should be 10–20 cm.
- After the emergence of a stable snow cover, you need to ram it around the apricot - this will prevent the early onset of sap flow during short thaws and destroy the burrows of mice that are under the snow.
Harvesting and storage
Apricots of the considered variety are distinguished by good keeping quality, but if they stay on the tree for too long, they will begin to crumble. For this reason, it is necessary to correctly determine the optimal harvesting time and create the most suitable conditions for the long-term storage of fresh fruits.
Experienced gardeners identify the following main recommendations for the collection and storage of apricots of the Ulyanikhinsky variety:
- Early harvesting should begin at the end of July, and if it is planned to transport fruits over long distances, then they are removed from the tree slightly immature.
- To protect the apricots from damage, they are carefully removed from the tree by hand or with the help of a fruit picker.
- The harvest must be sorted out, removing soft and damaged fruits - they will not be able to stay fresh for a long time, therefore they are used in the first place.
- Only whole apricots can be stored for storage without damage with a strong and moderately hard surface.
- The selected fresh fruits are carefully placed in boxes or baskets with a layer of 5-7 cm thick and placed in a dark and cool place with good ventilation.
- In a dark and cool basement, the fruits of the Ulyanikhinsky variety can be stored for 20 days, and in the refrigerator for up to 12 days at a temperature of about 0 ° C.
Did you know? Apricot fruits began to be eaten more than 6000 years ago.
Ulyanikhinsky apricot is recommended to be grown in regions with a cold climate, but it can also give generous fruit crops in the central and southern regions. Using the recommendations listed in this article, you can choose the most successful place for planting trees and create the most comfortable conditions in which they will delight the gardener with a large number of sweet and beautiful apricots every year.