Features of growing and caring for peach varieties Kremlyovsky
Now you will not surprise anyone with apple and pear trees in the garden. Every amateur or professional gardener wants to grow an exotic tree, reminiscent of warm countries and the sun. The peach tree is such. It can be grown under favorable climatic conditions and proper care.
Description of peach variety Kremlin
Thanks to breeder I.N. Ryabov, who developed the Kremlyovskiy peach variety, people have been growing delicious fruits for more than half a century. Then the scientist worked in the Crimean Nikitsky Botanical Garden. The variety was obtained as a result of hybridization of the varieties Rochester and Elbert.
Peach Kremlin - a gentle fruit crop. Belongs to table varieties of medium ripeness. Maturing early.Peach belongs to the family Rosaceae.
Good winter hardiness, average endurance in the dry summer period. The flowering period lasts 6-10 days. The plant is photophilous, it is demanding for heat and soil moisture. Harvest grade. It grows fast, so it requires pruning every year. The crown of the tree is wide oval, slightly spreading. The pubescent fruit has a rounded shape, the value is above average. The mass of the fruit is in the range of 100–120 g, occasionally it can reach 200 g. The fruit is velvety, has an orange-yellow color with a pronounced red blush and dense skin, which is easy to separate. The pulp is dense, sweet with a fine acidity, medium juiciness, fibrous, highly sugared. The oval bone is poorly removed. The plant begins to bear fruit from the third year after planting. Fruit ripening begins in the second decade of August.
Important! Kremlin peach grows and bears fruit better on higher elevations and flat terrain, and in lowlands and shaded places development slows down.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The Kremlin peach variety has many advantages. They should be taken into account so that the growing process brings satisfaction, and the resulting crop is a joy.
- When choosing a particular variety of peach seedlings for planting, note that the Kremlin peach:
- possesses good frost resistance and unpretentiousness in leaving;
- quickly acclimatizes in spite of what is considered a plant of a short dormant period;
- resistant to temperature extremes that are recorded during return frosts. This makes it possible to grow a variety in regions where the cool period is long in summer;
- tree buds can withstand temperatures down to –6 ° C;
- the variety is resistant to diseases - kleasterosporiosis, curly leaves and pests;
- it is possible to grow from the seed. In this case, the gardener gets a unique opportunity to get a full crop. Fruits will preserve maternal symptoms: fruit size, taste of pulp, juiciness, aroma.
- Kremlevsky has a few flaws in the peach variety. These include:
- tree height - it can reach 4 m, which makes it difficult to trim and spray;
- slow growth in lowlands and open space, because due to the flow of cold air a young tree will be poorly formed.
Peach planting requirements
Whether the cultivation of a thermophilic crop will be successful depends on the correct choice of variety, observance of the peculiarities of care and planting technology.
Gardeners recommend that a plot for growing peaches of the Kremlin Kremlin be allocated not in a lowland, but on a hill, but without drafts. A sufficient amount of sunlight will have a beneficial effect on productivity. So a young tree will be protected from the effects of return frost during flowering, will be able to receive heat from a wall warmed by the sun, which will affect yield.It is better to plant a peach near a capital building or high fence, preferably on the south side.
Not recommended plant seedlings near old trees with a spreading dense crown. Do not plant in those areas where vegetable crops were previously grown: eggplant, tomatoes, potatoes, as well as strawberries and watermelons. Also, the proximity to these and other nightshade crops will negatively affect the productivity of the Kremlin peach and lead to a possible infection with verticillosis.
- in order to get a good crop, the soil must have good aeration and medium acidity; peach cannot tolerate wetlands;
- in the fall, the area intended for spring planting should be cleaned of weeds;
- dig the soil before the winter season and make rotted humus.
Important! When preparing the soil for planting, remember that the distance from any plant to the peach seedling should be about 3 m.
Suitable landing dates
In the southern regions with a warm climate, Kremlin peach is more often planted in the fall. For other regions, the best landing time - early spring, when the earth is warmed up to + 12 ° С.
Before the arrival of winter, the plant will have time to grow stronger and easier to tolerate cold. Landing must be done before the swelling of the kidneys. When choosing a time for landing, it is necessary to focus on the climatic conditions of your region, the temperature regime at a specific time.
Preparing a pit for a seedling
With the arrival of heat, in early April, the period of preparation of the site and the place for planting begins. What to do:
- Dig the soil.
- Form landing holes one week before planting.
- The depth of the planting pit is done based on the size of the root system of the seedling. She will indicate to the gardener the most accurate dimensions of the pit. Deviations from accepted standards are acceptable. The depth and width of the pit can be up to 80 cm.
- At the bottom of the hole, it is recommended to put drainage in the form of a layer of broken red brick - 5 cm, pour this layer with 30 liters of water.
- Add nitrogen fertilizer: mix 10 kg of wood ash, 1 bucket of rotted humus, 2 buckets of chernozem.
- Drive a wooden stake into the center of the prepared foundation pit, it will serve as a support for the tree.
They begin to prepare a landing pit a month before planting. The soil should be fertile, with the addition of wood ash and mineral fertilizers. The increased content of limestone in the soil is undesirable for growing peaches. Limestone can cause disease in a tree.
Nutrient soil is poured with a knoll around a wooden support, spud up to 20-30 cm in height.
Did you know? Peach fruits contain vitamins A and E, they help maintain the natural beauty of the skin and healthy hair. Vitamin C will help strengthen immunity, and pectins and antioxidants - to maintain youth.
How to plant?
When the preparatory work for the formation of the landing hole is completed, you can begin to land. What to do:
- Check the condition of the root system of the seedling. It should not have traces of drying out and decay.
- Install a solid flat wood rail or stake in the middle of the pit. The height of the support is up to 150 cm. Lower the seedling into the hole and tie it with twine. An annual seedling will take root better. The rail should be positioned so that it shades the trunk on sunny days.
- Spread the roots of the plant in all directions.
- Fall asleep on top with fertile soil, compact from the edges to the seedling, water well several times with warm, settled or rainwater, while between the irrigations, the water should be completely absorbed.
- The near-trunk space should be mulched in order to protect the weak root system from the return of May frosts. Mulch can be humus, sawdust or straw. Fresh manure is not used for mulching.
- 2-3 days after planting, you need to water the seedling again in two passes.Between waterings, water should be completely absorbed into the soil.
- After a while, preventive procedures should be performed: whitewash the stem and treat the growing kidneys with a solution of Bordeaux fluid. This will protect the plant from fungal diseases.
Peach Care Features
With the advent of spring, after thawing and warming up the soil, gardeners begin to carry out manipulations to care for the tree to improve performance.Leaving involves:
- preventive actions for processing wood from diseases and pests - aphids, moths;
- crown formation, sanitary trimming of frozen, deformed, old and broken branches;
- loosening and weeding the soil around the trunk;
- balanced watering;
- top dressing with organic and mineral fertilizers;
- preparation for the winter period.
Did you know? To prevent the roots from freezing in winter, gardeners go to the trick: when planting, they put a large plastic bag in the prepared hole, fill it with nutritious soil and plant a tree in it, water it. The edges of the package serve as a shelter for the seedling.
Cropping and shaping the crown
In the period when the sap flow is just beginning, and the flowering begins before the buds open, and this is 2-3 weeks, it is recommended to prune the Kremlin peach.A well-ground, sanitized tool is used for trimming.
Cron must be formed from the first year. Trimming is a delicate procedure. With it, the development of the root system and crown is regulated. The optimal period for trimming is March. A healthy plant will begin to produce crops earlier. When a tree has a well-groomed crown, it is easier to pick fruit. It is important that the crown has a translucent appearance. Only by the age of 4 the tree will have the correct shape - in the form of a cup.
The main stem of the seedling is cut at a height of 60–70 cm. The bifurcation angle of the highest branch should be wide. Two more stems should have the same angle. Three branches slightly shorten. The overgrowth remaining on the conductor and the stem is trimmed when the buds open.
The main growth shoots are cut to 70 cm in the second year. Also, the branches located below and above, especially strong, are removed. The lateral branches are thinned out. Thinning stimulates the formation of large fruits. The remaining ovaries are reduced by 2 kidneys.
In the third year thinning and shaping trim continue. Shorten the 2 strongest shoots of the second row. A small portion of the conductor that has grown above the upper branch is removed. Bouquet branches that are formed at the bottom and at the top of the skeletal branches are cut off. Do not cut branches with a large number of fruit and vegetative buds. If the annual shoots have reached a height of half a meter, they are shortened by two buds. This action of the gardener will help the plant to form fruits. The branches below are cut to half a meter. After the formation of the crown last year, ovaries appear, growing up. They are shortened. Ovaries growing down cut into two buds. Deep growing shoots are removed.
For the fourth year the plant still needs pruning. On the bundles of the second row of branches of the skeleton, 1/3 of the primary length is cut off by disconnections of the third level. All dry branches are also removed. Extra thin ovaries on the shoots are subject to thinning. All nonviable shoots on the first order links are cut off. The branches of the lower growth, which were pruned last year, are reduced by two buds.The density of the buds will indicate to the gardener the need for circumcision. If the kidneys are close to each other, this will be a signal for cropping. If the fruiting buds are located on the edges of the shoots, then pruning should be minimal.
To activate productivity on the upper ovaries, eight groups of kidneys are cut.
In the autumn, dry, deformed, diseased branches are cut. With the appearance of branches growing inside the crown, they are timely removed. They thicken the crown, and this affects the yield and light. Healthy branches and stems are left on the tree. In the fall, the crown is not formed. In summer, the fruit tree is pruned as a last resort.
With proper care and favorable weather conditions from one peach tree of the Kremlin variety, you can harvest from 35 to 50 kg.
Did you know? The homeland of peach is China. Peach juice was used by Chinese women in the manufacture of masks for oily skin. The recipe, preserved from antiquity: mix 1 tsp. peach juice, olive oil, honey. Hold the mask for 10 minutes.
Peach tree needs to be fed annually if it needs it. Organic fertilizers are applied to nutritious soil only once every 2-3 years.
In the first 2–3 years of growth of the Kremlin peach, in the spring they feed the soil with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. They help to form an abundant ovary. Top dressing is introduced during the digging of the near-trunk space:
- 75 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m²;
- 50 g of urea per 1 m² or 150-200 g in the furrows around each tree.
In the summer, when intensive growth and ripening of fruits occurs, the foliar method of feeding is used. For 1 bucket of water take a choice:
- 30 g of potassium salt for the sweetness of the fetus is added during the ripening period;
- 50-60 g of ammonium nitrate and 120 g of aqueous extract of superphosphate;
- a mixture of 30-50 g of urea, 70 g of potassium sulfate, 60–70 g of ammonium sulfate 60 g of potassium chloride, 50 g of calcium chloride. If the fruit is not ripe, add 15 g of manganese and 10 g of borax, otherwise, the addition of these substances is excluded.
In autumn, granular phosphate top dressing is used at the rate of 45–50 g and 50–70 g of potash fertilizer for digging the trunk circle. With age, fertilizer rates gradually increase, approximately by 15–20 g in a year.
Weather conditions are an important aspect that affects the number of irrigations. The interval between watering should be determined independently. Usually, it is 3-5 times a season. The Kremlin peach variety does not tolerate excessive watering. Water stagnation can be detrimental to the plant. The ideal time for watering is early morning or evening.
After a snowy winter and dry spring, the tree is first watered at the end of May. If the spring turned out to be rainy, watering should be carried out no earlier than the beginning of June. For the second time, water the plant as needed, often in the first 2 weeks of July. The third time the plant is watered in mid-August.The soil should be saturated with moisture up to 60–70 cm. Sultry summers will require frequent watering, while rainy ones will postpone watering for later periods.
20–25 days before harvest, peach trees are watered. This will make it possible to get a large-fruited crop. Up to 5 buckets of water are used per 1 m². The next watering is done only after harvesting. Then you can count on getting sweet and non-watery fruits.
Aphids, striped moths, codling moths, spider mites and scale insects are the most frequent and dangerous pests of the peach tree. To combat them, it is worth using biological products that will not harm humans, and the fruits will be environmentally friendly. However, it is worthwhile to make other preventive measures.For spraying use 2-3% Bordeaux liquid. Copper-containing drugs can kill insect vectors. 300 g of copper sulfate and 400 g of lime are also bred in 1 bucket, and the plant is treated with this composition.
When the leaves bloom, the plants are treated with mixtures of biofungicides and bioinsecticides. These tank mixtures can be combined before studying the instructions. Proper preparation and use of biological products will serve as reliable protection for Kremlin peach from pests and diseases.
If the Kremlin peach is planted in autumn in the southern region, important garden manipulations must be done before the onset of cold weather, which will provide resistance to frost, will allow the tree to bear fruit well in the future:
- Before starting frosts, the trunk of the tree needs to be whitened.
- Mulch with a wooden sliver or pine conifer. Mulching should be done in dry frosty weather after autumn rains to minimize the risk of rodents and fungi.
- Water abundantly so that the roots in winter are provided with moisture and do not freeze.
- Spray crown with Bordeaux fluid. This will protect the peach crop from fungal diseases.
- Wrap with burlap or other material. Make small openings for air from the south side of the covering material. Also suitable for shelter is agrofiber, metal mesh or film.
Video: how to warm a peach for the winter.
A tree that has strengthened during the summer-autumn period is sheltered in late autumn. 2 pegs are driven in near the tree. Their height should correspond to the height of the tree trunk. Stakes and shtamb are wrapped with covering material: burlap, film, cardboard, agrofibre. The topsoil around the borehole surface is necessarily mulched. Use humus or peat. The mulch layer should be about 15 cm.
Harvesting and storage
The Kremlin crop of peach is harvested manually in 2-3 receptions, i.e. the fruits ripen unevenly. This fruit does not lie for a long time and is stored poorly, rots, fades. For eating, only ripe fruits are removed, and for transportation and commercial purposes - unripe green fruits. Peach does not tolerate transportation.
If there is a desire to leave the fruits for storage, for this they need to be removed immature and left to fully ripen in room conditions, wrapped in linen cloth. Optimum ripeness will be achieved in 4–5 days.If you need to provide conditions for longer storage, then each unripe fruit must be wrapped in white loose paper, folded into boxes, not stacking one on one, and stored in a cool dark place at a temperature of about 0ºC. Under such conditions, the fruit can be stored for 30–45 days.
People have known about the benefits and wonderful taste of peaches since ancient times. Having grown a tree or an entire orchard of the Kremlin peach variety, you can enjoy fresh fruits for a long time. In the fall, use fruits for canning, while all the healing properties of peach will be preserved, used for cosmetic purposes.