Features of planting and care for sweet cherry Sabrina
Column-shaped cherries take up very little space and are a real decoration of the garden. This is a great find for small plots. In such conditions, an excellent choice would be the planting of columnar cherries of the Sabrina variety, which also has self-fertility.
History of Variety Breeding
Like many columnar varieties, Sabrina was bred in Canada. The breeders of the Summerland agricultural station worked on the variety.
Description and characteristics of sweet cherry Sabrina
The culture grows on average about 2.5 m high. The crown can reach 1–1.5 m in this columnar cherry. This ensures good tree productivity - up to 10 kg. The drupe variety is large, up to 28-30 mm in size, weighing 11-12 g.
They have a red-burgundy color and good density, juicy flesh of a sweet taste. Drupe tightly attached to the stalk to the branches.
Did you know? The darker the fruits of cherries or cherries, the higher the content of antioxidant substances in them, which means — the more useful they are.
This is a self-made variety, which begins to produce crops already in the second year after planting. The fruiting period is mid-early - the end of June. The tree is resistant to diseases and pest attacks, the fruits do not crack. Frost resistance is at an average level.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The variety of sweet cherry Sabrina is interesting in such qualities:
- lack of need for pollinators;
- takes up little space;
- good productivity (as for a columnar variety);
- presentation of the fruit;
- universality of use;
- resistance to cracking;
- excellent immunity to diseases;
- fast fruiting;
- decorative look of a tree;
- compact sizes facilitate care and harvesting;
- sweet tasty fruits.
- The disadvantages are very arbitrary and include:
- not the highest frost resistance;
- the need for formation (at a young age).
Features of planting cherries
Planting a columnar sweet cherry has its own characteristics. Let's consider them in more detail.
In the southern regions, seedlings of columnar cherries can be planted in autumn or spring before buds open when the threat of frost is over.
In places with a cold climate, the seedling may not have time to take root before the frost, so it is better to plant it in the spring. In autumn it is planted a month before the onset of frosty weather.
Choosing a place to land
Sweet cherry should be well lit by the sun, but at the same time be protected from the north winds. The optimal occurrence of groundwater is no closer than 2–2.5 m.
Meltwater or precipitation should not collect at the landing site. It is optimal if there is a loose nutrient soil with a neutral reaction at the planting site.
If the soil is acidic, then it should be deoxidized in advance using lime or dolomite flour. To do this, dig a hole and prepare the soil. During spring planting, this is done in the fall, or at least 2-3 weeks before planting a seedling.
When digging the upper fertile layer, it is immediately discarded into a separate pile. Then it is mixed with rotted organic matter (1 bucket) and mineral fertilizers (16 g of potassium salt and 12 g of superphosphate).A hole is dug with a diameter of 70–80 cm and a depth of 60–70 cm. Even more organic matter and sand are added to the dense soil - the cherry loves friability and does not tolerate heavy earth.
If a lot of cherries of this variety are planted, then the distance between the pits in the row should be 1–1.5 m, and in the aisles - 2-3 m.
Important! When choosing a seedling you need to pay Special attention to the fruit kidney. It should be well developed and not damaged.
When planting sweet cherry varieties Sabrina perform the following actions:
- Try on a seedling to a prepared pit. Then a hill of such height is poured onto its bottom from the nutrient soil so that after planting the root neck of the tree is slightly higher than the soil.
- A support is inserted into the pit, to which an immature plant will be attached.
- The seedling is put on a hill and spread its roots.
- The hole is carefully poured and the soil is slightly compacted so that there are no voids at the roots of the tree.
- A hole is formed from above and the seedling is tied to the support with soft material.
- The well is well watered and covered on top with mulch.
To obtain a good and high-quality crop, it is necessary to provide the correct cherry care. In the early years, young trees need to be protected for the winter by warming the trunk with agrofibre and mulching the soil.
Watering and feeding
This fruit tree loves moderate watering. Dry soil can negatively affect the crop, and excess moisture often leads to the appearance of fungal diseases.
After planting, the seedling is watered every day for a month. Young trees should be moistened with a volume of water of 3-5 liters under the root 3-4 times a week.
Important! Watering trees is largely dependent on weather conditions. In rainy weather, it is stopped, and with drought, watering rates are increased.
As the tree grows, the amount of water for irrigation increases. Humidification of adult specimens is carried out using a groove dug around the trunk, into which water is poured. On average, a tree is watered about 2 times a week.
Before harvesting, hydration is stopped to prevent cracking of the cherries. In the second half of summer, watering is reduced to prevent the growth of shoots, as this will adversely affect the tree in winter.Providing fruit trees with essential nutrients is essential for normal growth and development.
For the entire growing season, cherries need to carry out at least 4 top dressings:
- In the spring, during the period of sap flow, it is necessary to carry out the introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. You can use infusions of chicken manure or manure in a ratio of 1:10.
- The second top dressing is carried out in a month, at the beginning of the appearance of color. Nitrogen fertilizers are also used for this.
- In early June, the tree should be fed with urea. The solution is prepared on the basis of the ratio of 30 g of substance to 10 l of water.
- At the end of October, it is recommended to add 300-400 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate per 1 tree to the soil during digging. This will allow the cherry to gain strength for wintering.
Important! In autumn, it is forbidden to introduce nitrogen into the soil, because it causes the growth of shoots and green mass, which is why cherry risks poorly tolerate winter temperatures.
In spring, it is necessary to remove all residues of vegetation and well to loosen the earth. In the future, soil loosening should be carried out regularly after each moistening. This procedure improves the flow of air and moisture to the cherry root system.
During loosening of the soil, weed removal should be carried out. Overgrown weeds not only draw moisture and nutrients, but also are a hotbed of various diseases and pests.
Once every 5 years, it is recommended to carry out liming of the soil. These trees do not tolerate the increased level of acidity in the soil, therefore, in acidic soil, this procedure is simply necessary.
Liming is carried out using lime, chalk, wood ash and dolomite flour. The application rate depends on the acidity of the soil.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Sweet cherry of this variety necessarily need pruning and crown formation measures:
- Immediately after planting a seedling in the spring, the top is cut off to it, but a growth of 20 cm is left. The side shoots are cut, observing a length of 12 cm from the trunk. The crown of the tree is given a columnar shape.
- In the second year of growth, shoots are cut 0.2 m from the trunk for an increase of 0.3 m.
- In the third year, shoots are cut, observing a distance of 0.4 m from the trunk. The crown of a central conductor that has grown over the summer is cut in July.
- For the fourth year, thinning is carried out in spring, cutting off only weak and growing in the wrong direction (inward) branches.
- In the fifth year, cherries usually grow to 2-3 m, so its growth is limited by removing the apex. This procedure is further repeated every year. In July, crown decimation is carried out.
- Since the sixth year, only sanitary pruning of wood has been carried out. Thinning is carried out every 3 years, removing the lateral branches in diameter to prevent thickening of the crown. In the fall, pruning of the tree is carried out only for sanitary purposes, removing dry and damaged branches of the disease.
Diseases and Pests
Sabrina cherries are very resistant to disease, but in adverse conditions can be susceptible to them. Most often, cherries are subject to fungal diseases that arise due to excessive moisture.
Consider the main ones:
- Coccomycosis. If the disease occurs, brown spots appear on the leaves. They dry and die by mid-summer. Chemical products “Chorus”, “Topaz” are used for the fight.
- Moniliosis. It causes drying and twisting of foliage, as well as decay of berries, on which gray growths appear. In this case, treatment should be carried out with Bordeaux liquid or with Nitrafen, Oleuprit.
- Kleasterosporiosis. It appears in the form of brown spots with a reddish rim on the drupes. Then voids appear on the spot site. To eliminate the problem, use the chemical "Horus".
- Rot. Symptoms of the disease are brownish spots on the fruit, on which a gray coating appears over time. In this case, it is necessary to apply treatment with a Bordeaux mixture or copper chloride.
- Powdery Mildew It appears in the form of powdery coating. Leaves gradually dry and die. For the struggle, chemical preparations “Topaz” and “Strobi” are used.
For the prevention of fungal diseases in spring, when buds appear, and in autumn, before wintering, they are treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate.
It is also necessary to collect the fallen fruits and dispose of them, and in the autumn to remove the remains of vegetation and foliage around the trunk circle. Branches damaged by the disease should be removed.
Of the pests, the cherry fly is the most dangerous for trees. It lays eggs directly into unripe fruits. Then the larvae, when they are born, begin to eat juicy pulp of cherries, which leads to damage to the crop.
Under adverse conditions, a cherry sawfly, weevil, aphid, and ticks may also appear on the crop. To combat insect pests, insecticides are used: Karbofos, Chlorofos, Actellik.
To prevent the occurrence of pests, it is necessary to whitewash tree trunks in spring and autumn, dig and loosen the soil around the tree, and remove areas of exfoliating bark.In winter, trunks of young seedlings are protected from rodents by burlap, agrofibre and spruce branches. In the southern regions, it is recommended to use a metal mesh for this.
Did you know? Cherry fruits can reasonably be consumed by diabetics, since 2/3 of the carbohydrates they contain are well-digested fructose. In addition, these berries for a long time repel cravings for sweets.
Harvesting and storage
Ripe cherries are convenient to collect, so there are no special problems. On a cherry plantation, you can even automate the collection of fruits.
However, cherries are not stored for long. For storage, choose intact and not overripe fruits. At a temperature of -1 ... + 1 ° С and humidity of 94–96%, they can last up to 14 days.There is another way to store. Fruits must be carefully placed in a glass jar before placing them in the refrigerator, on the bottom of which cherry leaves should be laid first.
Each layer of berries is shifted with leaves - this allows them to last up to 4 weeks. On top of the jar is closed with a suitable lid.
Cherries can also be frozen. Pre-wash the berries and remove the seeds from them.Then they are laid out on a baking sheet and placed in the freezer. After the cherries are sufficiently frozen, they are put into a container and again placed in the freezer.
The shelf life in this case is about 8 months. Cherry is also suitable for harvesting for the winter. It makes good jam and flavorful compote.
Did you know? Sweet cherry leaves have anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. Traditional medicine uses their decoction for colds and seasonal diseases.
The Sabrina cherry variety is columnar and saves space on the site. Growing and caring for it is typical for this crop, but be sure to pay special attention to forming pruning in the first years after planting.