Features planting and care for cherries Leningradskaya black
Until recently, gardeners in the Northwestern regions were not able to grow sweet cherries, since there was not a single variety that could withstand the climatic conditions of short summers and cold winters. The article introduces the variety Leningradskaya Chernaya, which became the success of Russian breeders in promoting the culture far to the North with the preservation of taste characteristics.
History of breeding varieties Leningradskaya black
The merit in the selection of the variety Leningradskaya black belongs to the breeders of the Pavlovsk experimental station of the All-Russian Institute of Plant Production (St. Petersburg). Before the appearance of this variety, the culture was considered traditionally southern and not adapted for cultivation in the Northwest region and fruit zones of the Non-Chernozem region.
The Northwest was generally considered the northern border for growing stone fruits in Russia. The author of the variety is the follower of I.V. Michurin - F.K. Teterev, who also developed the varieties Svetlana and Zorka.
Description and characteristics of the culture
Cherry berries ripen before the fruits of other garden crops, which is of great value. Mid-season cherries Leningradskaya black refers to the table species (gini) with tender flesh. This is a medium-sized tree (3-4 m) with a wide crown and moderate leafiness with large oval leaves. Inflorescences are formed from 3-5 flowers.
The berries are medium (weight 3-4 g), round-heart-shaped, with a maroon thin skin (with full ripening - almost black). The pulp is dark red, soft and juicy. The taste is sweet and slightly spicy. Taste rating - 4.2 points out of 5 possible, which is slightly lower than the taste ratings of the southern varieties. The stone is small, slightly separated from the pulp.
The use of berries is universal. The sweetness of the fruit depends on the growing region, planting location and weather conditions. In warm periods, fruit loading and their quality are better. In rainy periods and with excessive watering, sugar content drops and the flesh becomes watery.
Drought and winter hardiness
The variety is characterized by high cold and frost resistance. It is able to withstand temperatures in winter up to –30 ° C and spring return cold snap - it is considered one of the most frost-resistant and hardy varieties. The crop is drought tolerant, but moderate watering is required during the ripening phase of the fruit (from the moment of flowering to the beginning of the coloring of the berries).
Important! You can save trees from spring frosts by preserving the snow cover under the tree for the longest possible time - this delays the beginning of flowering.
Lack of moisture and drought at this time can lead to falling ovaries. In addition to winter frosts, cherries can be threatened by the spring sun, which causes burns and cracking trunks. To eliminate these problems will help whitewashing and wrapping the trunks with woven materials.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening period
The variety is self-fertile and requires additional pollination for the formation of the crop and the presence of pollinator trees, which are used as other common varieties: Iput, Michurinka, Revna, Tyutchevka, Krasnaya dense, Veda, Fatezh, Ovstuzhenka, Chermashnaya, Bryanskaya rozova and Bryanochka, as well Leningrad cherries with yellow and pink berries.
Pollinating varieties should coincide in flowering time and be equally frost-resistant. In addition, flowers are pollinated by bees. To attract insects and complete pollination, you can install hives in the garden or spray trees during the flowering period with honey solution.
After flowering in May, bouquet ovaries on long stalks appear on fruit branches. Ripening is fast.Harvesting ripened fruits can begin at the end of June in the Black Earth region or in 2-3 weeks in the Northwest. Ripening is extended in time, so the berries can hold out until the beginning of September.
Important! Self-infertile varieties can independently form only 5% of the ovaries.
The variety is early, bearing fruit in 3-4 years. It grows rapidly, providing an increase of 1 m in 1 year. During a season, 20-25 kg of fruits can be harvested from one tree in the first years of crown growth, and when the fruiting age is reached, 30-40 kg. The crop can be considered medium, but stable, since the fruit buds of the crop late come out of dormancy.
Disease and pest resistance
The variety has a high immunity to damage by pests and diseases.
Pros and cons of the variety
- Positive traits:
- medium-sized variety, which is convenient when picking berries;
- good taste and quality of berries (4.2 points);
- gradual ripening and not shedding of fruits;
- universal consumption;
- resistance to harmful lesions;
- frost and drought resistance;
- self-infertility and the need for additional pollination;
- average yield;
- the fruits crack and become watery with heavy rainfall.
Did you know? From the burgundy fruits of cherries, food coloring is made. And the color is green, not red, contrary to logic.
The best indicators of yield and quality of fruits can be provided with the right choice of seedling and planting location.
Recommended pick-up dates
Cherry is a heat-loving culture, and it is better to plant seedlings in the spring, before the buds swell, so that during the growing season, which lasts 8 months, the tree has managed to take root and strengthen.
But in regions with mild winters, autumn planting is also possible, but the maximum permissible period is mid-October. At this time, there should be no frost and frostbitten soil, and the seedling should be provided with additional protection against winter cold.
Choosing the right place
A slight slope in the direction to the south or south-west is allowed. You can raise the soil by half a meter, making a small hill or embankment.
The place should be well-lit throughout the day and sunny, otherwise the fruiting will be located on the outside of the crown.
Areas with close occurrence of groundwater (1.5–2 m), stagnation of melt or rain water in lowlands and excessive soil moisture should be excluded when choosing a place for sweet cherry. Sweet cherry grows better on loam or sandy loamy well-aerated soils.
What can and cannot be planted next to cherries?
When planning the scheme of the future garden, it should be remembered that pome and stone fruits do not like the neighborhood, therefore it is advisable to arrange such crops no closer than 4-5 meters from each other. It is better to plant crops in groups, avoiding mixed plantings.
In addition, cherries require a large feeding area (up to 4 m). This distance must be observed between the trees. It must be borne in mind that every tree will need sunlight, moisture, and nutrients.
Since the variety is self-fertile, several pollinating varieties must be planted nearby - it is good if 2-3 such trees grow nearby. Thicken planting should be avoided, as otherwise the trees will be pulled upward, making harvesting difficult.
Did you know? Cherry flowers are rich in pollen - from 1 ha of a cherry orchard, bees can collect up to 35 kg of pollen.
- Cherries, mountain ash and other cherries can grow next to cherries. A black elderberry will be a good neighbor, which at the same time will protect the cherries from aphids.
- Pomegranates (apple, pear), plums, sea buckthorn, black and red currants, viburnum are considered bad neighbors. Do not plant solanaceous crops and all kinds of pepper under the sweet cherry.
At the same time, the crown of cherry is sparse, and under it there is enough sunlight and moisture when it rains, so at the base you can plant melliferous flowers to attract pollinating insects.
Selection and preparation of planting material
It is advisable to buy a seedling in a nursery with a good reputation so as not to be mistaken with the variety and quality of planting material.
When choosing, the following rules must be observed:
- the variety must be zoned;
- the label on the seedling should contain information about the grade and time of vaccination;
- conditions on the site (soil, groundwater, light) should correspond to the conditions for the cultivation of cherries;
- it is better to buy planting material in the spring, before the buds open, or in the fall, after the leaves fall on the seedling and the end of sap flow;
- seedlings should be annual (0.8–1 m) without branches or two-year-old (up to 1.5 m) with 2-3 branches and one conductor;
- the bark, branches and trunk should not have damage and signs of disease;
- seedlings bought in the fall can be buried on the plot, placed in a trench (35–40 cm) at a 45 ° angle to the south;
- leaves from the branches of a seedling must be removed to prevent its dehydration;
- the rhizome should be moderately moist, with well-developed and intact roots;
- the thickness of the lower part of the stem is 1.5–2.5 cm, there should be a note the point of grafting at a height of 15–20 cm.
Important! Sweet cherry does not tolerate mechanical stress and damage, so it is advisable to form a crown in the first 2-3 years and not injure the tree in the future.
It is better to choose and prepare a place for planting a seedling in the fall, digging a planting hole twice the size of the root system. A depth of 60–70 cm and a diameter of 80–90 cm is usually sufficient. Lay 2 buckets of humus mixed with a small amount of earth at the bottom. In this form, the pit wintered.
On the eve of the planned planting, it is good to shed a dug hole with water and dig a stake (1.0–1.5 m) into the center, to which a seedling will be tied. The roots the day before planting should be soaked in the root formation stimulator according to the instructions or in water, removing dried and damaged roots.
The seedling is placed in a pit, carefully spreading the roots, and sprinkled with earth. Tamped lightly for better adhesion of the roots to the soil, watered and mulched. The root neck should be 5-8 cm above the ground, taking into account the subsidence of the earth after irrigation. The vaccination site should be directed south.
The distance between the seedlings is maintained at 3-4 m, so that later the trees do not obscure each other. It should be remembered that the diameter of the crown of cherry is usually 3 m with a slight discrepancy depending on the variety. The exception is columnar varieties.
Diseases and Pests
Affection of fruit trees with diseases and pests can be avoided if timely and regular prevention, inspection of trees and sanitary cleaning are carried out.
These events are simple and do not require special knowledge and significant labor costs:
- harvesting fallen leaves and carrion from the garden;
- whitewashing with lime solutions of the stem and skeletal branches;
- sanitary and thinning pruning to combat harmful lesions and improve lighting and ventilation of the crown;
- removal of young shoots and weeds in near-stem circles;
- Autumn digging of the soil with turning over the earth for the death of pests and pathogens from frost;
- spraying the tree against pests with pesticides "DNOC", "Nitrafen", Bordeaux mixtures, a solution of copper sulfate (5%);
- installation of trapping belts on the stub at a height of 30–40 cm and covering of the near-trunk circle with agrofibre.
Important! When handling chemicals, protect your hands, face, and eyes. Strictly follow the instructions and do not exceed the dosage. After treatment, you should take a shower and wash your face and hands with soap.
Black cherry Leningradskaya is resistant to pests, but adverse conditions, insufficient care and infection from neighboring plants can lead to damage. The need for protective measures is determined by the threshold of severity, based on a comparison of the observed number of pests with a threshold number.
Control measures for the mass appearance of pests:
- Cherry fly and leaflet - Trees are sprayed with insecticides “Arrivo”, “Fury”, “Confidor”, “Decis”, “Fufanon”, “Iskra”, “Actellik”. 2 treatments are required with an interval of 10 days. You can treat the affected trees with deterrent infusions of tobacco, needles, wormwood, garlic, or hang traps with sweet syrups.
- Cherry Pipeline - treatment with Aktara, organophosphorus pesticides: metaphos, karbofos, benzophosphate. Digging up and destroying bugs will help digging the soil and mechanical shaking from branches.
- Cherry aphid and sawflies - spring treatment of sleeping buds with the insect-acaricidal preparation “30V, 76% ke”, “Aktelik”, “Karbofos”, “Inta-Vir”. Infusions of dandelion leaves, feather onions, elderberry or tobacco inflorescences. When buds open - Confidor, Actofit.
- Birds - when fruits ripen, rustling ribbons or shiny foil are hung on the trees. You can cover the crowns with nets or use special ultrasonic devices to scare away.
- Fungal infections (moniliosis, chlorosis, coccomycosis) - remove problem branches to healthy wood and burn them, and treat the tree three times with an interval of 1 week with the antifungal preparations Horus, Abiga-peak, Khom, Strobi.
Harvesting and storage
Maturation of the Leningrad black does not take place simultaneously. From the same tree, ripened berries are removed 2-3 times. Harvest must be careful so as not to damage the fruits. Start cleaning from the lower branches, gradually moving to the top of the crown. For high places you will need stairs.
Did you know? Cherry is an ancient form of cherry, but in the Middle Ages they were considered one culture cerasus (cerasus), adding the definition of "sweet" to cherries, and "sour" to cherries. Cherry was also called "bird cherry" for the love of this berry.
Morning hours are most favorable for picking, since the fruits have the best density of pulp. For collection, it is advisable to use containers with a soft inner surface. Soft cherries are not subject to long-term storage, but removed slightly immature in a cool place (+ 6 ... + 7 ° C) can lie for 2-3 weeks and be transported.
If your region does not have a favorable climate and soil characteristics, then black Leningrad black cherry is a wonderful choice for a garden. Sweet cherries will allow you to enjoy early berries and provide the family with vitamins.