Features of planting and care for cherries Yulia
Today, many varieties of cherries with large and sweet berries are grown. Hybrids are characterized by high productivity, but most are designed only for the southern regions. Residents of the northern regions do not have a wide selection of cherries, since varieties that can tolerate frost can be counted on the fingers. One of the most productive winter-hardy varieties is Julia cherry. And how to grow this tree, as well as about the characteristics of the hybrid, later in the article.
This sweet cherry variety was bred by Rossoshanskaya fruit and berry experimental station in Russia. The author of the new variety is A. Voronchikhina.
Did you know? Some types of cherries can reach gigantic sizes - above 30 meters.
The “parents” who conveyed the main characteristics are Denissen yellow and Gini red. In individual sources, the main indicate one of the varieties, and the second - pollinator.
The Julia hybrid was entered in the State Register in 1992 and is offered for cultivation in the territories of the following administrative units:
- Central Black Earth Region;
- Lower Volga region.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Julia sweet cherry is hard not to notice. This hybrid is distinguished by its large dimensions, moreover, it concerns both the tree and the fruits.
Powerful, fast growing. The height of adult specimens reaches eight or more meters. Crohn - sprawling, pyramidal, thick. The branches of the lower row are slightly omitted. The trunk is covered with a slightly rough bark, sometimes - flaky, smooth. Mostly, the color of the bark is gray, with a slight cherry hue.
Did you know? There are more than a hundred varieties of cherries in the world, but about two dozen of them are massively grown.
The branches are small, but the internodes are long. During the growing season quite powerful buds are formed: vegetative - elongated and sharp, up to 7 mm long, generative - ovate, up to 6 mm.
When flowering, snow-white inflorescences bloom, collected in 2-3 pieces. The foliage is ovoid, pointed, with large crests along the edges and a smooth surface. On the underside, the leaves are downy.
Ripe berries are quite large - 7-8 g. Young trees give a harvest of smaller fruits - 5-6 g.
Cherry fruits are round or heart-shaped, slightly flattened on the sides. The skin is thin, but dense, painted in a creamy pink color. A bright blush spread throughout the surface. It is especially expressive on the sunny side. Berries ripening in shading have a weaker glow.
The stone is oval, brownish-yellow, small (0.45–0.5 g), accounting for about 9% of the total mass. It is easily separated from the pulp. The peduncle is oblong, 4.1-4.8 cm long. The flesh has a cream color, slightly fibrous, juicy, dense. According to the characteristics of the pulp, Julia is referred to the bigarro group. Fresh juice has no color, unclear.
On the palate, the fruits practically do not differ from other varieties of sweet cherries: sweet, with a slight acidity. According to tasters, they deserve 4.4 points
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The main advantages of the Julia sweet hybrid are the following characteristics:
- high productivity;
- ability to tolerate difficult climatic conditions;
- preservation of presentation in transit;
- easy care.
- Among the shortcomings, gardeners note the following:
- the presence of pollinating neighbors to increase productivity;
- fragility of branches, due to which the tree unstable tolerates winds and other physical activities (crop weight, etc.);
- in climatic zones with a “short” summer, berries do not have time to fully ripen.
Some features of the variety
The hybrid is highly drought tolerant. It tolerates heat and a short absence of moisture.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
The frost resistance of a tree is above average. The variety perfectly tolerates a decrease in temperature to -30 ° C, while both the bark and the root system remain unharmed.
Important! If a tree grows in a cold territorial zone, then in frosty winters, most of the buds (up to 70%) die.
To harmful insects and fungal diseases characteristic of a cherry plant, the variety Julia is immune. If it is rational to carry out preventive measures, the risk of damage to the culture of coccomycosis and gray rot is minimal.
Sweet cherry Julia refers to self-infertile hybrids. Good neighbors-pollinators for it will be varieties:
- Bryansk rose;
To achieve maximum effect, at least three varieties of cherries should be planted on the site, the flowering phase of which coincides in time
Ripening period, productivity, transportability
Cherry begins to bloom in April, and the first crop is harvested in the fourth year after planting a seedling. If the soil is depleted and no complete top dressing was carried out during planting, the first berries are received only by the fifth year of growth of the tree. In warm regions, ripening occurs in mid-summer (June-July), in the middle zone of the Russian Federation - in mid-August.
From an adult, a fifteen-year-old tree, 50–65 kg of berries are collected. At a young age, such indicators are more modest - until the age of eight, the tree gives 20–25 kg. The dense fibrous pulp of berries allows you to transport the crop over long distances without loss of taste and marketability.
Important! Growing in the shade greatly slows the growth of the tree and complicates the process of fruiting.
Preparing for landing and choosing a place
To plant a variety of cherries Julia choose a site based on the parameters:
- Ground water. Their proximity to the surface is undesirable, since there is a high probability of accumulation of excess moisture. The optimal level of water occurrence is not less than 2.5 m.
- Openness of the site. Such places create the prerequisites for the negative impact of winds on inflorescences and buds of a tree - they can be damaged by strong winds.
- Spacing between plants. Do not forget that an adult tree has a wide crown. Therefore, when landing, leave a free zone (minimum distance - 3 m).
- The soil. Suitable light, fertile, with neutral acidity.
- Lighting. Continuous access to light favors active growth and development. It is not forbidden to plant a tree in partial shade.
Every gardener knows that any variety should be planted in accordance with certain requirements. The grafted grafts of Yulia grafted are planted at a time when the soil has already thawed and the sap flow has not yet begun (the buds have not opened).
Allowed landing at the end of the growing season. But at the same time, the leaves are torn off, and the roots, without fail, well spud and warm the trunk. For spring planting, a pit is prepared in the fall. If the tree is planted in the fall, dig a hole 2-3 weeks before the intended event.
The site before planting is freed from weeds and remove excess objects. Landing work is performed according to the following scheme:
- Pit preparation. Sizes: diameter - 90-100 cm, depths - 0.7 m.
- Top dressing. A layer of organic fertilizers (compost, humus, manure, wood ash, potassium and phosphorus-containing substances) is laid on the bottom of the hole.
- Seedling placement. A small hill is built in the center of the pit, placing a seedling on its surface. A peg is stuck next to the hole and the tree is fixed, tied to the peg.
- Shutdown. Sprinkle the seedling with earth, compacting the soil in such a way as to prevent voids around the rhizome. The soil is watered with two buckets of water and mulched from above (compost).
If you plan to plant several trees, between them leave at least 4-5 m, and between the rows - 2-3 m
Features of further care
Subsequent tree care includes standard agrotechnical procedures. But each of them is carried out according to certain rules.
The event is held as necessary. Sweet cherry does not tolerate both excessive moisture in the soil in which it grows, and "overdried" soil. Without fail, the tree is abundantly watered in the autumn period, before the winter cold. This will protect the root system from possible freezing, and therefore - minimize the risk of plant death.
The tree needs fertilizers only when the phase of abundant fruiting sets in - in the fourth year of life. For cherries, such dressings are necessary:
- Nitrogen. Drugs based on it are introduced during active sap flow, in March or April (depending on the region). It is important to apply such top dressing before the flowering period, using them as a trunk irrigation. At a distance of 1.5 meters, a ditch is pulled out around the tree, into which fertilizer is poured. The solution itself is prepared from chicken droppings (1 kg) diluted with water (20 l). The mixture is well mixed and allowed to infuse for a day, stirring occasionally.
- Potassium. Potassium compounds are used during the formation of berries. Nutrient liquid is prepared from wood ash (300 g) and warm water (20 l). The mixture is stirred and left for 2.5-3 hours before cooling. Make a solution in the soil "in pure form" or during irrigation.
- Superphosphate. It is added to the ground before the winter season, when the tree discards foliage. The drug is scattered on the surface of the soil around the trunk and covered with a thin layer of earth so that the wind does not blow. Weather precipitation will dissolve the drug, and it, along with water, will penetrate the rhizome.
Did you know? At one time, sweet cherry resin was used as chewing gum.
Trunk Circle Care
The near-trunk zone must be taken care of - it is periodically cleaned of weeds and the fallen leaves are removed. In addition, the soil is periodically loosened. This provides better penetration of moisture to the roots. Do not neglect the mulching of the near-stem circle - it will help moisture to stay longer in the soil and reduce the amount of watering.
The following materials are used as mulch:
Mulch will protect the plant from pests and diseases, insulate the roots and eliminate the need to loosen the ground again
Cropping and shaping the crown
This procedure is necessary for the tree without fail, especially after five years of age. It helps to increase productivity, and also, facilitates the process of collecting berries, eliminates thickening, development and spread of diseases.
Important! A dense crown is the main enemy of productivity. For good fruiting, the plant needs plenty of sunshine.
It is recommended to prune in late autumn or early winter, when the tree is at rest. In spring, the damaged areas will be delayed and the plant will continue its active development. During pruning, old and injured branches, as well as dried and overgrown shoots, are removed. The main branch of the tree should protrude 20 cm above the rest. When forming the crown, the length of each branch should be controlled.
Protection against colds and rodents
Before the onset of cold weather, the tree must be protected from frost and protect the invasion of rodents. This is especially important for young plants and immature seedlings. As a covering material use burlap, a special non-woven material or a dense plastic film.
The warming process is simple: pegs are driven vertically into the soil near the tree and a covering layer is pulled on them. Such a dome creates a microclimate favorable for the cherry around the aerial part of the plant. The soil near the trunk is covered with a layer of mulch for the winter. From rodents, the lower part of the trunk is covered with roofing material or metal mesh.
Harvesting and storage
In late June, they begin to remove berries from the branches. You should not delay this work, because under the weight of the fruit, the branches can break. On average, in a refrigerator, at a temperature of 0 ° C, Julia cherry is stored for about two weeks.
For longer storage, the berries are placed in the freezer
As you can see, the Julia variety does not cause much trouble. A high winter hardiness and moderate drought tolerance allows you to grow it in almost all regions of Russia.