Features planting and care for cherries Fatezh
The Fatezh cherry variety is appreciated because of its increased frost resistance and the ability to grow and bear fruit in the middle lane regions. You will learn how to plant and grow a cherry tree in a summer cottage and get a plentiful and tasty harvest from it, you will learn from the article.
Description and characteristics of the variety of cherry Fatezh
The Fatezh variety was obtained by Russian breeders by free pollination of sweet cherry Leningrad yellow and named after the name of the city in the Kursk region. He entered the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2001. Suitable for cultivation in the Central region.
Adult tree height
Fatezh trees do not grow too tall - up to 3 m. The crown has the shape of a ball. It is drooping, spreading. It is characterized by medium thickening.
Did you know? Due to the fact that cherries are very fond of birds, it is often also called bird cherry.
The branches are straight, thick, extending from the trunk at a right or obtuse angle. The leaves are large in size, long, pointed at the ends, lanceolate, with small serrations at the edges. The leaf plates are painted dark green.
Flowering and ripening period
Flowering occurs in the early stages. The flowers are white. Fruits are formed in the early stages on bouquet branches and annual shoots. The first crop can be harvested 5-6 years after planting. Berries ripen in late June - early July. The berries are large, weighing 4.3-4.4 g.
They are rounded in shape. The peel is painted in the main yellow color and a red blush. The flesh is light pink, juicy, dense, gristly. Her taste is dessert, sweet and sour. It is rated at 4.5–4.7 points on a five-point tasting scale. The stone is medium in size, oval in shape. It separates well from the pulp.
Pollinators and productivity
In order to get high yields from cherries, in the immediate vicinity should be planted 1-2 trees belonging to a variety that can serve as a pollinator. These include: Chermashnaya, Ovstuzhenka, Iput, Raditsa, Crimean.Crops that trees give in the first years after entering fruiting are low - they reach only 4-5 kg per tree. In subsequent years, the productivity of cherries increases. 30 kg of berries are harvested from 10-year-old trees, and 50 kg each from older trees.
The density of the skin and pulp allows you to transport fruits over long distances without losing their presentation and taste characteristics.
Frost and drought resistance
Fatezh trees tolerate low temperatures and short-term droughts well, quickly recover after them.
Did you know? Man began to grow cherry trees about 8 thousand years BC. e. in the territory of modern Turkey. Scientists suggest that it was from there that the ancient Romans took it, thanks to which this fruit culture spread throughout the world.
How to plant cherry Fatezh
To plant sweet cherry, it is necessary to select a suitable site, purchase high-quality planting material, and fertilize the earth. The place where it is planned to plant a seedling should be well lit by the sun and be protected from drafts.
It is desirable that there is a building to the north of the tree that will protect it from the winds. Well, if you plant a seedling on a natural hill or build a hill from the ground with your own hands. Before landing, it is important to find out at what depth underground water lies.They should not come closer to the surface of the earth by more than 1.5–2 m. Otherwise, rotting of the root system may occur. Cherry trees grow and develop best in loamy and sandy loamy soils, with good moisture and air conductivity, with a neutral or slightly alkaline acidity reaction.
Choosing a seedling for planting
For planting, one or two year old seedlings should be purchased in a trusted nursery or garden store. When choosing, one should give preference to planting material that has a strong and well-developed root system, a smooth, healthy-looking bark, without spots and growths on the root neck.
The trunk should have a diameter of about 1.5–1.6 cm. Annual seedlings may not have branches. Two-year-olds should already have several shoots formed.Preparing a seedling for planting: - 1, 2 - normal length; 3, 4 - shortened. (The dashed line shows the cut line).
The preparation of the landing pit should be attended to in the fall. They dig out it with a diameter of 0.8 cm and a depth of 0.7 cm. Then, humus (2 buckets) connected to fertile soil is introduced into it. In the spring, mineral fertilizers are required to be added to the pit: superphosphate (300 g), potassium sulfate (100 g). If possible, it is also useful to mix wood ash (1 kg).
Timing and landing scheme
Cherry should be planted in early spring, before the buds swell. Autumn planting of this fruit crop is not recommended, as it may not have time to adapt to winter cold. It can be done only in regions with warm winters.
When landing, they first drive a stake in the center of the pit. It is necessary in order to tie up the still fragile trunk of a seedling for the first time. Then fertilized soil is poured into the bottom of the pit, making a small hill. A seedling is placed on the hill, aligning it so that the root neck is 5–7 cm above the edge of the hole. The roots are straightened and evenly distributed on the knoll.The scheme of planting fruit trees. Empty the voids, completely filling the pit with earth. Tamped, making light movements. So that water during irrigation does not spread over the near-stem zone, a small earthen rampart is installed around the trunk. Under one tree, you need to spend 20-30 liters of water. The landing is completed by tying the trunk to the stake and mulching the near-trunk zone with peat.
Quality care for the cherry tree involves regular watering, top dressing, loosening, mulching and weeding the trunk area, pruning and shaping the crown, shelter for the winter, preventive treatments against diseases and pests.
Fertilizers and watering
In order for the tree to be healthy, strong and bear fruit well, it must be fed annually. Organic fertilizers are recommended every 2-3 years. Minerals are required to be added annually. In spring and early summer, nitrogen is needed; in summer and autumn, phosphorus and potassium are needed.
Important! It is forbidden to make fertilizers in dry soil, as this provokes a burn of the roots. Top dressing is carried out exclusively after wetting or rains.
For the first time, fertilizers under a young tree are applied 3 years after planting. Up to this point, feeding is impractical, since the plant will have enough nutrients introduced into the landing hole.
When feeding, you can use the recommendations given in the table:
|3 years after planting:|
|in early spring||urea (120 g);|
|beginning of May - beginning of June, 3 times at intervals of 14–20 days||urea in liquid form (20-30 g / 10 l of water).|
|in spring||liquid urea (20-30 g / 10 l of water);|
|late summer and fall||superphosphate (300–400 g), potassium sulfate (100–120 g).|
|in spring||ammofoska (30 g / 10 l);|
|in autumn||humus (20-30 kg / 1 tree).|
|After entering fruiting:|
|in spring||urea (200-300 g);|
|in autumn||compost, humus (40–50 kg), superphosphate (400 g), potassium salt (200–300 g).|
Moisten the cherries at least 4 times per season. Watering is mandatory before the tree blooms, after the flowers bloom, 20 days before harvest, in October. The number of waterings and their volume will depend on weather conditions. If long dry periods are observed, then humidification should be made more frequent and plentiful.However, it is important to consider that the cherry does not like excess moisture. Humidification should be moderate. It should be watered so that the soil in the near-stem zone is wet 30–40 cm in depth.
Important! Watering should be excluded shortly before the fruiting period. At this time, an abundance of moisture can lead to cracking of the skin of the berries.
Weeding and cultivation
It is important to ensure that the near-stem zone is clean and that weeds do not grow in it. Weeds are dangerous because they spread diseases and pests, take away nutrients and moisture from young cherries. Weeding should be careful so as not to damage the root system. You also need to regularly cultivate and mulch.
Loosening the soil in the near-stem zone should be a day after the rains have passed or irrigation has been carried out. During this procedure, it is possible to avoid the formation of a hard crust on the surface of the earth, which prevents the access of oxygen and water to the root system. Mulch is placed in the near-trunk zone to reduce the number of weeds and irrigation. Dry grass, peat, sawdust, straw and other materials are used as mulch.
Cherry tree is cut to avoid thickening, the development of diseases and pests, to form a certain shape of the crown, to rejuvenate the tree. Every year in the spring, it is worth cutting out diseased, dried, frostbite, curved, growing deep into the crown branches. The crown is formed in a tree until it reaches the age of five.
If an annual seedling is planted, then it is shortened to 50-60 cm, keeping 5-6 buds. In the future, they cut off a third of last year's growth, forming skeletal branches and branches of the lower tiers. After the formation of the crown is completed, it will need to be maintained in a neat state, cutting out shoots that grow incorrectly and interfere with normal fruiting.
Preparing for the winter cherry Fatezh
Heat-loving cherries must be prepared for the winter. For this, whitewashing, sheltering of the trunk and root system, water-charging irrigation, mulching of the near-trunk zone should be done. Water-charging irrigation is carried out in October. It is necessary so that in winter, when water freezes in the upper layers of the soil, the plant can take moisture remaining in the depths.
Under one tree, you should spend about 100 liters of water. Whitening is necessary in order to protect trees from diseases, pests, sunlight, frost, and cracks in the bark. For whitewashing, they acquire a special solution or prepare it with their own hands, mixing fluffy lime (300 g), PVA glue (2 tbsp.) Or milk (0.5 tbsp.), Water (2 l), copper sulfate (1 tbsp. l.), dust (1 tbsp. l.).A tree can tolerate frosty temperatures if it insulates its trunk and root system by sheltering and mulching. The trunk is wrapped with agrofibre, roofing felt, spruce branches, burlap. The near-trunk zone is mulched with peat, which is laid in a 30-cm layer.
Pest and Disease Control
Cherry Fatezh has a strong immunity, is resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis. But with errors made during planting and care, cherry trees can be affected by diseases and attacked by harmful insects. Of the diseases for plants, fruit rot is the most dangerous.
To prevent it, before the appearance of flowers, it is necessary to spray with the preparations "Fundazol" (10 g / 10 l of water), "Topaz" (2 ml / 10 l), after flowering - "Chorus" (3 g / 10 l). When infected, the diseased branches should be cut and burned. Cherry Fatezh can be affected by aphids, moths and cherry flies.
Important! In order not to harm the crop, chemical treatments must be stopped 40 days before the berries are picked.
They fight aphids with garlic infusions, preparations “Fufanon” (10 ml / 10 l), “Confidor” (1.5 g / 10 l), “Fitoverm” (1.5 ml / 10 l). From moths, spraying on the buds helps with Confidor (1.5 g / 10 L), Fitoverm (1.5 ml / 10 L).You can get rid of the cherry fly by treating the trees with Actellic (2 ml / 2 l), Fufanon, (10 ml / 10 l), Karate (4 ml / 10 l).
Harvesting and storage
Berries are picked when a red blush appears on the skin and the flesh becomes juicy and sweet. For fresh food, berries are picked at full maturity, for preservation - 2-3 days earlier, for transportation - 5-7 days earlier. The peduncle must be green when harvested.
Fruits are torn off with hands or cut with scissors, leaving the stalk on the berry. For transportation or storage, they are stacked in plastic boxes. Only intact fruits are stored. At a temperature of 0 ... + 0.5 ° C, the cherry can last up to 7-10 days. Fatezh berries are consumed fresh, boiled compote from them, make jam.During the heat treatment, the skin does not crack. So, the Fatezh sweet cherry variety is great for growing in summer cottages and household plots in the middle lane. Subject to the recommendations for planting and care, the trees will annually produce a large number of tasty and healthy berries.