Features of planting and care for Napoleon cherries
Among a large number of varietal varieties of cherries, varieties with large black berries occupy a leading position, as an increasing number of gardeners recognize them as the most delicious and juicy. The Napoleon variety is also a representative of this group, and what exactly it became famous for and how to grow a tree in its own area - read more about this.
Variety selection history
Napoleon is a representative of ancient cherry varieties, bred by European scientists as far back as the 19th century using the stock of the Antipka Magaleb cherry. In past decades, fruit trees were grown mainly in the southern regions of the Russian Federation, a little later seedlings came to the city of Khasavyurt (Dagestan), and then the variety spread throughout Russia and today is found in various regions of the state.
Did you know? Regular use of cherries for food reduces the human body's need for sugar. So, with daily consumption of 100-200 g of such berries, cookies, sweets and other products containing sugar, you will want much less, which is important when dealing with excess weight.
Botanical grade description
The described variety of cherries is a representative of the mid-late ripening group, since the trees begin to bear fruit only for 4-5 years after the young plant is placed on the site. Up to this point, the growth and development of the plant is characterized by increased intensity, and then decreases slightly.
The height of a ten-year-old plant often reaches 5-6 m, although higher specimens up to 7 m are also found. Crohn is a standard spherical shape, very spreading. The leaf plates are light green in color, oval and slightly elongated at both ends.During flowering (usually April), lush white inflorescences are formed on the shoots, with two or three flowers in each
At the end of flowering, in place of the buds, dark red or pink fruits are laid, which in a state of full maturity weigh at least 5-10 g each. All of them have an elongated oval shape, which in some cases becomes wide-hearted over time. Under the medium-thick skin hides a dense, gristly and very juicy pulp, with a richly sweet taste, sometimes with a slight sourness. Berries reach their ripeness in early July, although they are often removed earlier - at the end of June.
The main characteristics of fruit trees, which gardeners are most interested in, were and remain the yield, level of frost resistance, the possibility of independent pollination of plants, resistance to diseases and pests of the crop. For this reason, it makes sense to study these features before planting Napoleon cherries.
Napoleon - a proven variety of cherries that has passed the test of time
Winter hardiness and drought tolerance of trees of this variety are at an average level, therefore, at stable temperature drops to -30 ° C, it is better to shelter young plants for the winter. To do this, artificial or natural materials are used, but it is necessary after preliminary soil treatment, whitewashing of trunks and other activities related to the preparation of plants for the winter season.
Important! Do not wrap tree trunks with one burlap, especially if rodents have been noticed on the site. Trying to protect the plant from the cold, you can attract mice and rats to it, which will negatively affect the state of the bark and shoots.
The best pollinators
Variety Napoleon belongs to self-infertile plants, and this means that for the formation of delicious berries you have to plant pollinating trees in the garden.The best varieties are Valery Chkalov, Drogana yellow, Zhabule, Cassini early, Early mark. In the mass cultivation of cherries, it is desirable to arrange paired rows.Large Napoleon cherry berries are stored for a long time, are transportable, have excellent characteristics
Productivity and fruiting
With proper organization of care, at least 28-30 kg of berries can be removed from 1 tree, although such results can be achieved no earlier than by 5-6 years of growing a grafted young plant. In the southern regions, one 10-year-old tree can bring up to 70 kg of berries, but this is rather an exception to the rule and it is better to focus on the average values given.
Scope of berries
The ripened fruits of Napoleon sweet cherry are perfect for any culinary use, not only fresh, but also dried or frozen. They go well with other berries and fruits, and can also be used when harvesting for the winter. Some gardeners even use the fruits in traditional medicine and the culinary industry, which in particular is explained by their high tasting score of 4.9 points out of 5 possible.
Sweet cherry Napoleon suitable for winter harvesting
Disease and pest resistance
Thanks to the efforts of breeders, Napoleon cherries (both black and pink varieties) are different highly resistant to moniliosis, coccomycosis, fruit rot and other fungal diseasesbut at the same time suffers from pest attacks. Of insects, trees are scary aphid, sawfly and cherry fly, though the latter is less relevant for pink "Napoleonic" cherries.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The advantages of Napoleon cherries are obvious to many gardeners, and to make sure they are available, just plant a plant on your site.
- The strengths of the variety are deservedly considered such characteristics:
- high yields;
- excellent keeping quality of the harvest (berries can be stored in a cool place for up to 2 weeks);
- excellent presentation, moreover, it does not suffer at all even during long-term transportation;
- the possibility of universal use (cherries are equally tasty both fresh and after freezing or processing into compotes and preserves);
- comparative ease of crop care.
- As for the disadvantages of growing Napoleon cherries, then it is worth recalling about:
- medium resistance to winter temperature drops;
- the need for pollinating varieties;
- low resistance to the cherry fly.
Planting any fruit tree begins with the selection of a suitable site and the proper preparation of planting material, not to mention the rules and technology for performing the planting process itself. Any of these actions has its own characteristics, which should not be forgotten already at the stage of planning the procedure.
Did you know? Cooked cherry juice is an excellent tool in the fight against dry cough, as it helps to remove sputum.
The optimal time for planting Napoleon seedlings is mid-autumn, but in accordance with weather conditions. Usually, planting work is carried out at least 2-3 weeks before the expected frost, so that the plants have enough time for full adaptation and preparation for the winter season.
In the northern regions of cultivation, with early winters, spring planting will be more preferable, performed immediately after the snow has melted, but before the buds appear on the seedlings. With a high degree of probability, this will avoid freezing of the root system of plants, but for safety, a temporary shelter can be installed over the seedling.
Video: Cherry planting instructions
Choosing the right place
Cherry is a sun-loving plant, so when choosing a suitable site for planting a seedling, you should give preference to well-lit areas, previously cleared of weeds and plant debris from other crops. About a month before the proposed planting, you should dig the earth onto the bayonet of a shovel and, if necessary, fertilize with organic compounds, in the calculation of 4-5 kg per 1 m² of territory.
As a result of landing the root neck of the seedling should protrude above the soil surface by about 3-4 cm, and so that it does not freeze with the arrival of winter colds, it is worth abundantly spilling young cherries, removing the shelter immediately after frosts.When organizing a landing hole, the size of the root system of prepared seedlings must be taken into account and the depth of the pit is calculated taking into account the thickness of the lower nutrient layer with fertilizers
Selection and preparation of planting material
The best specimens for growing will be seedlings of Napoleon cherry on Antipka stock, which increases the frost resistance of the plant, and will also contribute to its better growth and development. For such planting material, any soil composition is suitable, with the exception of too clay and saline soils.
The root system of plants penetrates to a depth of 4 m, slowly grows shoots, but at the same time begins to bear fruit earlier. The optimal age of the seedling is 1-2 years, although 3-year-old plants are allowed to plant, but not older.
A prerequisite when buying a Napoleon cherry seedling is the presence of healthy kidneys and at least 3 well-developed roots, 0.2 m long each
Of course, before carrying out planting measures, it is worthwhile to carefully examine the prepared cherry for signs of the development of diseases or pest activity, which can be noticeable both on the rhizome and on the aerial part. The roots and shoots of a quality seedling will always be resilient and “alive”, with a uniform surface color. Therefore, with a large number of rotten or broken parts, it is desirable to find a more suitable option.
Important! If the brown inside of the root is visible with an incision, then there was a defeat by frost and it is better to refuse to acquire such a plant.
Given the considerable size of adult cherry trees of the Napoleon variety, it is not surprising that even at the stage of planting seedlings, it is worth observing the distance between neighboring plants in the aisles of 3-4 m. All further actions are performed in the following sequence:
- Pour a hill of fertile soil into the prepared hole and slightly level it.
- Drive in the center of the supporting wooden stake.
- Place the selected seedling on the surface and after spreading all the roots, carefully fill it with soil, compacting the soil so that there is no free space between the individual roots.
- Tie the trunk to the support stake, leaving the root neck on the surface of the earth and orienting it to the south.
After a short process of planting seedlings of cherries Napoleon, a long stage of plant care begins, on which the abundance of fruiting and the quality of the future crop depend. The main activities in this case will be as follows.
Watering and feeding
The regime of watering and feeding the planted crop depends on the region of growing fruit trees. For example, in the southern regions of the Russian Federation, emphasis should be placed on regular wetting of the substrate (especially in dry periods), and fertilizers are usually needed on depleted soils. In this case, one can limit oneself to organics in the form of rotted cow manure or plant waste, which is introduced into the soil mainly in the autumn period and shortly after the next watering of crops.
In general, the substrate wetting pattern is as follows:
- in May, immediately after the flowering of trees, watering is needed for the optimal development of already planted fruits;
- during the period of filling berries, the liquid is important to increase their juiciness and a brighter color;
- Before winter frosts, timely water-loading irrigation will contribute to better frost resistance of plants.
During a period of drought, it is important to moisten the earth well so that the water reaches 40 cm depth. Surface watering will not bring the desired result, since moisture simply does not reach the roots of the tree.
The rate of fluid flow per 1 adult plant is at least 40-50 liters of water
The process of pruning cherries Napoleon is not much different from similar actions in relation to other varieties of cherries, therefore, in this case, the general rules apply:
- annual shoots are cut to 1/5 of the trunk length;
- sanitary pruning provides for the complete cutting of all incorrectly growing branches, dry and damaged specimens.
Both versions of the procedure are more likely to occur in the spring, but if absolutely necessary, it is possible to repeat sanitary cleaning of the crown in the fall (after falling off all the leaves).
At the end of the procedure, all large sections should be definitely treated with garden varieties, which are excellent prophylaxis of diseases and pests, and also contribute to faster regeneration of wood tissue
Pest and Disease Treatment
Preventive treatment of cherry trees with insecticidal preparations is rarely performed, but in case of severe pest damage (especially cherry weevil), spraying the crown and trunk with Aktara, Aktellik or Angio will be appropriate. The solution is prepared in accordance with the instructions.The standard, non-chemical methods of prevention will be the timely burning of plant debris and weeds in the near-stem circle, the winter digging of the soil onto the bayonet of a shovel, and the metered application of top dressing and watering.
With the advent of spring, during the swelling of the buds, you can spray the trees with a solution of copper sulfate (100 g of substance is dissolved in a bucket of water)
Harvesting and storage
At the end of June or the beginning of July, it is already possible to start harvesting Napoleon cherries by removing the berries together with the stem. They can be stored fresh for no longer than 14 days, but even in this case you will have to place them in a cool place, having previously decomposed them into shallow, spacious containers. For processing for preservation, drying or freezing, freshly removed cherries, previously washed and cleaned of dirt, are ideal.
Despite the average frost resistance of Napoleon trees, it is better to plant them in the southern and central regions, where temperature fluctuations are not so significant. Otherwise, these cherries will be an excellent option for the garden, especially if other varieties of this variety of fruit trees grow on the site.