Features of growing and caring for Shetan onions
Shetana is a popular onion variety bred by Czech breeders. Planting onions is possible by seeds or planting and depends on the personal preferences of the gardener. About the features of the variety and its care - read in this article.
Description and characteristics of onions
One of the earliest crops that gardeners begin to grow in the spring is onions. A lot of its varieties are bred all over the world. They are characterized by common botanical characteristics and features, the appearance of which breeders sought when breeding varieties.
Did you know? Onions have been in the diet of people for more than 7000 years. Archaeologists have found traces of it in the Bronze Age settlements.
Any onion is a biennial. Its development begins with the appearance of a flowering arrow in the second half of summer on the bulbs of the second year of cultivation. Harvested seeds are called nigella. If planted in the spring, they will form small onion seeds, which will grow into large bulbs next year. In late summer, flowering arrows will appear on them and the cycle will be repeated anew.
Externally, onions consist of a root, stem and leaves. The roots are small, slightly branching, located on the bottom.
Bulbous need frequent but shallow watering due to this size of roots. Donets is a kind of stiff inedible stalk. Green leaves are thin, tubular, hollow inside, have a thickening at the end, which forms the bulb. In this variety, it is one.
The Shetan variety is bred in Eastern Europe (Czech Republic), so it grows well in temperate and warm climates. The botanical description is typical for this plant.
Did you know? Varieties of onions, in which there is absolutely no bitterness, are stored less than onions with bitterness. But they are great for making sandwiches.
The main characteristics of the Shetana variety:
- bulbs: medium size, weighing 45-50 g, maximum weight - 80 g;
- shape: domed;
- scales: bronze or straw yellow, durable;
- pulp: white, aromatic, peninsular;
- rosette of leaves: moderate volume, erect;
- height: up to 30–40 cm;
- productivity: 50-60 kg / ha, maximum - 200 kg / ha;
- maturity: 85–100%;
- marketable properties: excellent durability and good transportability.
Sevka of the Shetana variety is characterized by uniformity. The size of the onion bulbs is very convenient for the housewives - one will be enough as a seasoning in any dish. The variety is considered universal: both bulbs and feathers are used both fresh and in various dishes and winter preparations.
- Among the advantages of the variety are the following:
- good taste characteristics - soft, without excessive bitterness;
- portion size of bulbs;
- excellent appearance of the heads, thanks to dense scales;
- moisture resistance.
In some sources, Shetan is designated as a mid-early variety, and in others as a late variety. The vegetation period, if you plant sowing, will be 80 days, and when planting seeds - 100 days. Greens on a feather can be cut off as it ripens during the entire growing season.
The variety is resistant to fusarium wilt, but may be subject to peronosporosis.
Some recipes require the use of a certain variety of onions. The one with yellow scales is considered universal and is used more often than others. He has a great balance of astringency and sweetness. And it will be sweeter the longer it takes to cook.
The healing properties of onions are not only widely known in folk medicine, but also recognized and official.
- When including onions in the diet revealed:
- reduced risk of developing stomach cancer;
- a decrease in the likelihood of thrombosis and its consequences - stroke and heart attack;
- lowering cholesterol and certain substances that are involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.
It has a unique combination of biologically active substances that affect the human body. These are fructans, flavonoids and organosulfur compounds.
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Quercetin - One of the flavonoids that acts as an antioxidant, deactivating molecules that are harmful to body cells. Studies have shown that quercetin reduces the likelihood of a cancer and promotes the healing of stomach ulcers.
Organosulfur compounds are responsible for taste and smell. They are able to reduce the symptoms associated with diabetes, are involved in blood formation processes. The vegetable is safe when taken orally as an ingredient in various dishes. Consuming 100 g of onion per day for an adult (half the average bulb) is considered completely safe.
- Contraindications and necessary precautions:
- during lactation or pregnancy, it is recommended to adhere to the usual dose that you eat with food, and not to exceed it;
- onions can slow down blood coagulation and this is likely to increase the possibility of bleeding;
- persons allergic to celery or wormwood may be allergic to onions;
- it can lower blood sugar, so if you have diabetes, carefully monitor your sugar level;
- in the presence of indigestion, some people note that even the normal onion norm enhances the symptoms of the indigestion.
Optimal conditions for growing
This vegetable crop grows well in a wide range of climatic conditions. But the best is a mild season without intense heat, cold or heavy rainfall. For bulb formation, a temperature of +12 ... + 25 ° C is required. The plant is frost-resistant and can tolerate even short-term frosts. Most often, the plant is grown from April to August.
The main soil requirement: the presence of a large number of organic fertilizers, good drainage and regular removal of weeds. Proper soil should hold moisture and nutrients well, so it’s advisable to add compost to improve texture.
If you have time, dig a plot for a future plantation in the fall, and then again in the spring. This improves the structure of the soil. Onions grow well after corn, beans and potatoes.
Important! A sharp increase in air temperature accelerates the ripening of the crop, but the bulbs do not have time to reach maximum size and remain small.
Features of sowing seeds at home
Preparation for growing includes several stages:
- Soil preparation: weed removal, compost or rotted manure. If the soil is acidified, then you need to add lime, but not earlier than a month before planting onions and fertilizing.
- Seed preparation: they are disinfected and made more resistant to viruses. Seeds are soaked in warm water (+ 45 ° C) for a day, which allows you to destroy pathogenic bacteria. It also speeds up germination.
Preparing planting material
Seeding by seedling is carried out at the end of March. They are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate (1%) and treated with a growth stimulator. You can use Zircon for this.It will provide protection against pathogenic microorganisms, as well as improve metabolic processes in onions, accelerating its growth. Soak the seeds for about 8 hours. The dosage and duration of stimulants should be looked at on the package for the drug.
Choice of capacity for landing
Seedlings are grown in containers with different texture and size.The most common type of container for onions is a box for seedlings. It can be wooden or plastic. If this is a new container, then it is washed with soap before planting. Last year's containers are also thoroughly washed and disinfected.
The process of planting seedlings and their further care
Onion seeds are planted 4-6 weeks before the expected end of the frost. If the feather has reached a height of 6 cm, then the seedlings begin to be taken outside, gradually increasing the residence time for hardening. The hardening period lasts 1-2 weeks.
Important! Onions should not be given to dogs. It can cause anemia and even death.
Seedling technology for seedlings:
- Soil is placed in a container for seedlings. It could be a store mix for vegetables.
- Make shallow grooves.
- Seeds are sown in rows to a depth of 0.5 cm.
- Lightly moisten the soil with water.
- The tank is installed in a place with good lighting.
- If you need to accelerate germination - cover the container with plastic wrap.
Seeds will germinate in 4–10 days.
Features of open transplantation
Seedlings are planted in open ground before the last frost or immediately after it.
The sowing pattern is very simple:
- Furrows are made in the excavated, thoroughly loosened soil. The distance between them should not be less than 20 cm to avoid thickening of landings. The depth of the furrows is 1-2 cm.
- Seedlings are planted at a distance of 10 cm from each other.
Crop care consists of periodic loosening of the soil, drip irrigation and the destruction of weeds.
Cultivation and care of seed in open ground
Growing onions from seed sets is considered more practical than sowing seeds and a two-year bulb development cycle. In climatic zones with winter temperatures ranging from -12 ...- 35 ° С, sowing is performed in early spring. In areas with warm winters (temperature -7 ... + 4 ° С), planting can be done at the end of winter. Buying seeds for planting, you need to be sure of the quality of planting material.
Criterias of choice:
- a good onion may have some dry heads (no more than 1%);
- if you mix it with your hand, then it should rustle;
- the smell should be characteristic of the onion, without dampness, mold, rot;
- all bulbs should be of the color and shape that are characteristic of the variety;
- the bulb is always dense, there should not be traces of pests, rotting or disease on it;
- color is uniform, without spots;
- no mechanical damage.
Important! Qualitative sevka should be shallow. Large onions are used only for growing herbs. This is due to the fact that he is spinning fast.
Site and ground preparation
Once the seeds are planted on seedlings, you can prepare a plot for planting. To do this, deep digging is carried out: large clods of earth are broken (they can deform bulbs), rotted manure is introduced to improve fertility, and the soil is evened on the site. If you plant sowing, then the preparation of the site is carried out in the same way.
The process of planting seed in the ground
Sowing is carried out as follows:
- Compost is added to the prepared area, mixing it with the topsoil.
- Make furrows 5 cm deep.
- Bulbs are placed in them, roots down, deepening into the soil to about half.
- The distance to the next bulb should be at least 10 cm.
- Abundantly watered.
- During the first month, watering is carried out every 5-7 days.
Feeding and watering
After the first month of growth, onions will not need abundant watering. He will have enough rainwater. But if the climate is dry and there is no rain for a long time, then water the crops 1 time per week. Do not fill the soil deeper than 5 cm: there are no onion roots, and water will be wasted.
Did you know? In the Middle Ages, onions were a peculiar form of currency and were used to pay rent, goods and services. and even as a gift.
Soil cultivation and weeding
Weeds grow everywhere. They take away nutrients from onions, as well as soil moisture.If there is no desire to weave often, then cover the aisles with mulch. It can be sawdust, straw, other materials.
Weeding is combined with loosening. It is carried out the day after watering. It is always more convenient to pull out weeds from soft moist soil, and you will not damage the delicate roots of onions. The grass with the stem root is torn out manually, trying to remove completely. Creeping root plants are pruned with pruning shears and stretching as much root as possible.
Disease and Pest Prevention
Onions are susceptible to attacks by a large number of pests. Early varieties of onions suffer less from pests due to the fact that they do not coincide with them in activity. But the rest of the crops need to be protected.
Important! Fungal spores are carried through the air along with moisture during irrigation and even with shoes or tools that you used to process the beds, so always take precautions when working with infected plants.
Onion pests and methods of dealing with them:
- Onion tick - a very small insect that damages the roots of the bulb. The affected roots are covered with gray dust and die off, and new ones are not formed, because of which the plant dies. To process crops from ticks, Apollo and Vertimek acaricides are used.
- Onion Secretive Hunter - lives inside the pulp of leaves. These are yellowish larvae up to 7 mm long. The pest does not tolerate the smell of mustard, so it is recommended to plant it in the aisles.
- Onion moth - eats leaves, because of which they turn yellow and dry. The mole is active at night, so during the day it is very difficult to detect. But her larvae will gnaw long noticeable moves, but you can’t eat such onions. Use for preparation of crops preparations "Summer resident", "Metaphos".
- Onion fly - the most dangerous pest. He lays eggs at the root neck. The bulbs in which the larvae live begin to rot and die. The fly begins during the flowering of cherry and bird cherry. To combat it, watering the bulbs with saline solution (200 g / 10 l of water) is used, and also sprinkling soil with ash or ground pepper. These substances are unpleasant for most pests and are considered quite effective.
- Thrips - look like little black sticks. They feed on leaf juice. To combat them, they are treated with Aktara.
- Onion nematode - a microscopic worm that affects the bulb. As a result, it softens and rots, and the stems dry out. Nematode is a dangerous pest that can be in the soil for more than a year without plants on which it parasitizes. To combat it, they use the entire available arsenal of funds: observing onion crop rotation with a planting interval of 5 years, disinfecting equipment, eliminating weeds, disinfecting the soil, planting healthy bulbs. For soil treatment, a solution of baking soda is used - 1 g per 1 liter of water. For processing onions before planting, use soaking in warm water (+ 45 ° C) for 1 hour or for a day in a 1% salt solution.
Diseases can occur during onion growth as well as during storage. To combat them, it is recommended to take measures before the moment of infection in order to reduce damage. To protect crops from infection with fungal diseases, onion sets are treated with Alirin-B, Bactofit and other biofungicides before planting.
Did you know? It is believed that onions have antiseptic properties, so during the wars it was actively used to heal wounds.
The main diseases of onions and methods of dealing with them:
- Powdery mildew - manifests itself in the form of a white powdery coating on the leaves.The disease has a fungal nature. It is favored by thickened plantings and humid warm weather.
- Downy mildew (peronosporosis) - manifests itself in the form of yellowish spots on the leaves. This fungus is activated when humidity rises.
- Rust - a disease of fungal nature. Its characteristic feature is rusty spots on the leaves. Gradually, the leaf plate turns yellow and dies.
- Alternariosis - manifests itself in the form of spots with a watery outline. As it develops, this stain becomes similar to the brown annual rings on the tree trunk. Usually the fungus attacks old or dying leaves.
- Cervical (gray) rot - a harmful disease of fungal nature. It affects crops before the ripening of the bulbs. At the breeding site of the fungal spores, the bulb becomes limp, becomes watery and rots. Fertilizers containing nitrogen can resist the disease. Of the chemicals used "Tigam" or "Benlat".
- Mosaic - refers to viral diseases. It appears in the form of yellow spots and light streaks on the leaves, which later turn into chlorosis. Affected leaves fade, such a plant does not develop and forms a small elongated bulb. Virus carriers are pests. There is no chemical protection against the virus, therefore, after harvesting, the bulbs are dried for 10 hours at a temperature of + 42 ° C, which reduces the likelihood of virus infection.
Harvesting and storage
Shetana is harvested in August. External signs of onion readiness for harvesting are yellow leaves. But if it rains, then it will be green. In this case, it is recommended to slightly raise the onion by the tops. Clipping the roots will accelerate the process of completing the growing season.
Did you know? The characteristic “onion” was added to the name of the onion for its visual similarity to turnip.
In this state, the onion remains for 2 weeks. At this time, it should not receive moisture. After that, the bulbs are removed from the soil and transferred to a dry room for further drying. Dry tops are cut off, leaving a tail 2 cm long.
For further storage, onions are placed in boxes and sent to a room with an air temperature not exceeding + 14 ° C and a relative humidity of 70–80%. Get a good harvest of Shetan onion is not difficult. It is enough to know the rules of its cultivation and use the acquired knowledge in practice.