TOP-7 varieties of pears for Belarus
The climate of Belarus cannot be called ideal for growing a beloved pear by everyone. However, this fact did not become an obstacle to the cultivation of a garden tree - rather, it forced breeders to show their talents and to embody the necessary qualities in new varieties.
The best varieties of pears in Belarus
As you know, any garden or garden crop needs a certain amount of sunny days in order to grow and bear fruit well. Pear is a sun-loving crop.
When creating varieties that can grow normally in the republic, first of all, these circumstances were taken into account: a moderate number of sunny days per year and frosty winters.
At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the southern border of the state is located approximately at the latitude of Kursk and Voronezh, and the north of the republic corresponds to the Moscow region. And as you know, thanks to the selection work of specialists, including Belarusian, quite a lot of different varieties are already growing in these parts.
Although it should be said that as far back as 35–40 years ago, pears practically did not grow in the Smolensk and Vitebsk regions. We have chosen 7 varieties of pears, for one reason or another, the most suitable for growing in Belarus.
Did you know? Farmer from China Gao Xinjiang grows pears in the form of Buddha. In Chinese supermarkets, these unusual fruits are sold under the name “happy pears,” since many believe that they bring happiness and good fortune.
The winter variety was bred by the breeders of the Belarusian Research Institute of Fruit Growing. Poor Louise became the ancestor. The state registry recommends the cultivation of Belorussian late in the North-West and Central regions.A tree of medium height, characterized by early maturity. The crown is compact, we can say spherical. Light green leaves have a smooth surface and an elongated shape.
The skeletal branches are large and strong, departing from the trunk almost parallel to the surface of the earth, gradually rushing up. Shoots of medium thickness, slightly pubescent, buds of medium size, without edges.
Fruits are formed on the gloves, both simple and complex. White flower, elliptical petals.
In the fourth season after planting, the tree begins to bear fruit. Harvest Dates - End of September. The variety has a high yield, the impressions of which are somewhat blurred by the lack of stability.
The fruit is of medium size, the average weight ranges from 115–125 g. When ripe, the fruits acquire a peculiar pear shape, wide, without a pronounced bend. A pleasant property of the variety is that fruits of about one caliber are formed on one tree.
The peel is a little rough, with brown spots. Upon reaching a ripe maturity, the skin color is green; when ripe, it turns yellow, acquiring a pinkish tint. The peduncle is short and straight.Juicy creamy pulp has an oily consistency. It has a typical sweet taste with a slight acidity. Experts estimate the taste of the fruit at 4.2–4.4 points out of 5.
A pear (without damage) removed from a branch at the turn of September-October, under the right storage conditions, can be enjoyed in late winter or even early spring.
The variety is self-fertilehowever, an abundant harvest will be facilitated by the cultivation of nearby pears of the varieties Oily or Bere Loshitskaya.
- Among the advantages of the variety should be highlighted:
- early maturity;
- very good keeping quality;
- good tolerance to long and rather severe frosts.
- There are also characteristic disadvantages:
- yields are not stable;
- vulnerability to scab and bacterial burn;
- with a plentiful harvest, pears are formed smaller;
- the crown should be trimmed and thinned from time to time.
Did you know? If juniper grows near a pear, then a disease such as rust does not threaten a fruit tree.
A variety of Belarusian selection, bred by crossing Lyubimitsa Klapp and Aleksandrovka by a group of specialists Mikhnevich, Myalik, Putsilo and Konovalova, was listed in the State Register of the Republic of Belarus in 1999.
The height of the tree is above average, it can reach 5.5 m. The pyramidal crown is moderately thick, leaves are of a typical shape.
Fruits weighing 135–150 g, tender yellow-green color, ripen at the turn of the season - summer and autumn. In earlier terms, it is unlikely to be able to fully enjoy the rather high taste qualities of pears, they will still be green.
The palatability of the fruit is widely recognized because of the sweet white juicy pulp with a pleasant acidity. What is also important, the high sugar content in pear (9% and higher) allows its use in winemaking, which is a very valuable quality for these latitudes.Before embarking on the cultivation of Dukhmyany, one should take into account the fact that the variety is self-infertile, so be sure to take care of pollinators, which are excellent varieties:
- Simply Maria;
In the fourth season, after Dukhmyany takes root, a harvest should be expected. It will pleasantly please you both with its size (up to 20 t / ha) and stability.
But with winter hardiness varieties are worse: in the northern regions of the country, it is better not to plant Dukhmyany and in any case, the pear should be insulated for the winter.
- Pros of Duhmyanoy:
- high and stable productivity;
- pretty good storage and excellent portability;
- the immunity of the variety copes pretty well with bacteria and scab.
- Cons of the variety:
- pollinators are required;
- mediocre frost tolerance;
- poorly resists fungal diseases;
- the tree is tall, which makes thinning of the crown difficult and the harvest is completely collected (for storage).
Another result of the work of Belarusian breeders, which should be mentioned in the description of the Fun.
The breeding was carried out by a group of specialists led by M. Myalik. As a result of crossbreeding, the Fun appeared - an autumn variety that ripens in the second decade of September.The tree is crowned with a crown resembling a pyramid shape. Tree growth is medium. Fruiting occurs after 4–5 seasons; the ovaries are present both on the spears and on the gloves of both types.
A typical feature of Fun fruits is their one-dimensionality - pears of about the same size and weight (155–165 g) ripen on a tree. All pears look like in the picture - fruits of the same regular pear shape, yellow with a greenish tint and a red barrel by the time of consumer maturity.
Taste quality Fun, according to experts, deserves 4.6 points out of 5 possible. The taste characteristic of pears is sweet, with a pleasant light acidity and aroma. Very delicate cream-colored pulp does not allow to store pears for longer than 1 month.Despite the fact that the Fun is self-fertile, in order to get a guaranteed stable crop, which can reach 16–19 t / ha, it needs pollinating neighbors. As such, the presence of pears with a very close flowering period will be a good neighborhood: Smart Efimova, Bere Loshitskaya, etc.
- Of the merits of Fun, it is worth mentioning the following:
- medium-sized tree allows you to easily and thoroughly process it (thin out the crown, fully harvest);
- pears taste great;
- very high productivity.
- Disadvantages revealed in the Fun:
- insufficient study of the variety due to its youth (first of all, this relates to frost resistance in the regions of central Russia);
- short shelf life of fruits.
Important! If in the place where you plan to plant a Zabava pear, heavy clay soil prevails, dig a large hole - 1.5×1.5 m
A hybrid of Belarusian breeders, obtained as a result of crossing varieties Druzhba, Sapezhanka, Lagodnaya.The sorceress is zoned in the Grodno region and in the south of Russia. In 2011, the hybrid was included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. The tree is characterized by rapid growth and a very early ripening period.A tree of medium height with a pyramidal, moderately dense crown. Of the characteristic features of the hybrid, it should be noted its resistance to frost. However, for the first 3-4 years, the trunk should be covered for the winter, but then the tree will thank you in full for the care.
Inflorescences are grouped into a kind of brushes, this fact greatly facilitates the collection of fruits. The shape of the leaves is typical for the species, emerald shade. When creating favorable conditions, the tree is characterized by strong immunity, which makes it possible to withstand most diseases.
Pollinators are not needed for this variety.although early pears of other varieties, growing nearby, will only benefit. Of the pollinators, the best can be called Lagodnaya, Friendship.The first fruits should be expected for the fourth season. The fruits have a shortened shape and yellow color with a touch of green tones. Dark spots are clearly visible on the skin. Light, barely noticeable, sour taste of sweet and juicy fruits is barely noticeable. The color of the pulp is white, the consistency is moderately dense.
Fruits do not deform during prolonged storage. One pear weighs from 145 to 165 g. Productivity is high - up to 55 kg per tree.
Harvested from the second half of July until the end of summer. The long shelf life, like most early matrices, is not a Strength of the Witch Doctor. The pear removed from the branch is stored in the refrigerator for 10–20 days.
- The main advantages of the variety:
- high productivity;
- tolerates winter cold;
- high immunity;
- quite a long shelf life and good transportability allow growing for sale;
- undemanding care.
No significant minuses were found.
The variety belongs to the breeding development of Belarusian specialists under the guidance of Myalik M. In 2005, it was included in the State Register of the Republic of Belarus. It has a very tall tree, whose crown is moderately dense, has the shape of a pyramid. Fruiting is regular, mixed type.
The fruits have a regular pear shape, similar to a truncated cone. The average weight of one pear is about 150 g, although it can reach up to 170–180 g. The peel color is green, only the hue differs: by the time of the onset of consumer maturity it becomes slightly yellow.Harvested in late summer and early fall, in a cool place can lie up to 20 days. From 1 ha you can get up to 20 tons of pears of excellent quality.
The pulp of the fruits is white, oily, very juicy and tender, the graininess is clearly visible in the structure. The taste is typical, sweet with sourness and a characteristic aroma.
The first pears from the tree can be enjoyed for the fourth season after the tree takes root. Lagodnaya tolerates winter well, although severe frosts still pose a danger to it. As for immunity, it should be said about a certain resistance to scab.
- Among the advantages of the variety are the following:
- early maturity;
- good tolerance of frost;
- high and stable fruiting;
- excellent taste.
The disadvantages characteristic of the pear Lagodnaya include only insufficient resistance to most diseases.
The variety, as it may seem, owes its name not to the once most popular series, but to Maria Myalik to its originator. The time required for breeding was 35 years.
Based on Maslyanaya, preserving and strengthening all of its best qualities and removing shortcomings, breeders received this variety.The appearance of the tree is remarkable: the height is not more than 3 m, the stem is 0.5–0.7 m, the entire remaining volume is occupied by the pyramidal crown, which at the same time grows over 10–12 years.
The harvest of a lonely growing tree will not be plentiful, therefore, for greater productivity, it is necessary to have pollinators close in time to flowering.
Fruit formation occurs on small shoots with buds that have not reached full development. One ripe pear has a mass of up to 200 g, but this is an average indicator. When proper conditions are created, pears can reach 330–345 g.
During the period of technical maturity, Maria simply has a smooth yellow color with a green tint, in the degree of commercial maturity, the skin color becomes honey.
The peduncle is short, strong, slightly curved, the skin is thin, oily. It is extremely difficult to describe the taste of the pulp, in a word, it is excellent. The consistency is very delicate, the pear has an indescribable smell.Harvest should be expected in the fourth, and in some cases, in the third year after the tree is planted. For a tree with such a small size, the yield is simply excellent - 38–43 kg per tree.
A distinctive feature is frost resistance - up to -38 ° С. In addition, breeders did not ignore such an important quality as resistance to diseases (scab, black cancer, septoria).
According to experts, just Mary in terms of taste superior to recognized leaders among pears.
- The main advantages of Just Maria variety:
- excellent taste;
- high stable yield;
- early maturity;
- very large fruits;
- excellent winter hardiness;
- strong immunity can successfully resist many diseases.
- Of the disadvantages of the variety must be said about the following:
- shedding of ovaries is sometimes observed;
- the tree needs regular thinning of the crown.
Did you know? In the XVII century in Russia, the pear was called "dulia". This name was formed from the Polish word dula, which meant this culture.
Another variety developed under the guidance of Myalik M. G., besides her, Yakimovich O. A and Alekseeva G. A. worked on Yasachka. A variety was developed by the Belarusian Institute of Fruit Growing.
The tree is characterized by low height (up to 2.8 m), a crown of medium degree of splendor, the diameter of which does not exceed 3 m.
Yasaka has broad-pear-shaped fruits, weighing 145-160 g. The surface of the pear is covered with tubercles, has a rough texture. The peel is moderately thick, devoid of an oily sheen, but there is a slight rust. By the time of ripening, the fruits have a yellow-green color, with a cover color of an orange tint.By the time of consumer maturity, the color acquires a beautiful golden hue, and the integumentary color becomes smeared, scarlet.
The flesh is a soft lemon color, has an average degree of density, almost no grains are felt. The smell is weak, but there is a lot of juice and a wonderful sweet taste with subtle acidity.
Begins to bear fruit in the fourth, less often in the fifth season. Productivity is high - up to 17 t / ha. Due to its “youth”, the variety has not yet been studied very well, however, some conclusions regarding its qualities can already be made.
- Of the advantages it should be said about these:
- low tree height contributes to the complete harvest and easy care of the crown;
- high productivity;
- high profitability in industrial cultivation (up to 94%);
- excellent frost resistance.
- As for the disadvantages, the following should be mentioned:
- poor knowledge of the variety;
- lack of resistance to scab and bacterial cancer.
Important! Quince is a rather popular stock for crops of the Pink family; however, not all pear varieties are suitable for quince as a scion. Late Belarussian, Lagodnaya and Kudesnitsa are quite compatible with such stock (quince). But the red leaves of the grafted pear indicate poor compatibility of the stock and scion.
Features of cultivation and care
Often you can hear the opinion about the capriciousness of the pear, especially in conditions of latitudes north of Ukraine.However, this statement is only partly true: at present, including due to the efforts of Belarusian breeders, a sufficient number of varieties that are quite adapted to local climatic conditions have been bred.However, when planting and growing pears, it is still necessary to take into account some climatic features of the region.
In principle, any type of soil is acceptable for a tree, however, fertile sandy loam or loam with good drainage and a neutral or slightly acidic pH are the most acceptable option. The culture does not tolerate very lowlands in which moisture stagnates, this is especially true in relation to Belarus, with its heavy snow.
For cultivation, it is better to choose a small hill, well-lit by the sun and closed from the wind. Groundwater should not be closer than 1.5 m from the surface.
It is better to plant several different varieties with approximately the same flowering period nearby. Landing is carried out in autumn or winter, if there is no particular recommendation regarding this circumstance.
In autumn, the pear should be planted about 18–20 days before the onset of frost. Preliminarily, in the selected area, the soil is prepared for planting.
If the soil contains a lot of clay, peat or river sand is added to it. Compost is added to the sand.
When digging the earth into the soil make a mixture (1 m²) containing the following ingredients:
- compost - 10 l;
- superphosphate - 60 g;
- potassium salt - 30 g.
It is mixed with such fertilizers:
- ash - 140-160 g;
- potassium sulfate - 40-50 g;
- superphosphate - 240-270 g;
- humus - 1 bucket.
The resulting soil mixture is poured into the bottom of the pit so that a mound is formed. Before this, a stake should be driven into the bottom, to which a tree will then be tied.
At the top of the knoll will be the base of the seedling. The tree should be planted in such a way that the root neck is located 4-6 cm above ground level. This important detail is necessary for the normal growth of the seedling: that is why the pit should be dug in advance so that it does not sag and crumble in the future.
Important! In the conditions of severe winters of Belarus, it is especially important to warm the tree before the onset of winter frosts.
The tree is placed on a knoll, they fill the pit with soil, they tie up a seedling, and water it abundantly (2–4 buckets of warm water).The first year after planting, the tree is not touched. In the future, it is necessary to feed it with complex mineral fertilizers 2–4 times per season and add organic matter once every 3 years. In March, 15–20 days before the swelling of the kidneys, pruning, removal of dry branches, thinning are performed.
In summer, water the tree as necessary, remove weed grass, and take preventive measures to combat pests and diseases.
In autumn, after harvesting, it is necessary to carry out pre-winter watering and prepare the tree for winter. To do this, shtamb and skeletal branches are whitened, the trunk is insulated with agrofibre, cardboard and roofing material. You can use dry grass, stuffed into the "well" of roofing material, built around the trunk. The trunk circle is mulched with peat or sawdust.
Diseases and Pests
Despite the fact that many new varieties of pears have a fairly strong immunity, diseases and pests are dangerous for most trees of different ages. The greatest threat is scab, bacterial burn, rust. Of the pests, it is worth isolating aphids, hawthorns, leafworms, fruit ticks, weevils, tinnitsa, moths.
If the summer was rainy, there is a high probability of developing scab. Foliage is affected by spots of yellow or light brown. Pears are deformed, covered with black spots.Shoots, buds and leaves can become a target for powdery mildew. They are covered with a coating that resembles the appearance of flour, which subsequently reddens.Fruit rot is also a danger, the hallmark of which are brown rotten spots on pears.After leaf fall or in March, before the swelling of the kidneys, rust treatment is carried out by spraying with a 5% urea solution. In addition, in the fall should be sprayed with 7-8% urea solution.To prevent disease 2 times a year (March and October), trees are treated with urea (1 kg / 1 bucket of water).
For treatment, drugs like:
As preventive measures for pest control, it is necessary to carry out such measures:
- timely fertilizer - this measure increases the immunity of the tree;
- remove dry bark, branches, weeds around the tree;
- periodically thin out the crown.
Important! For the best storage of pear fruit, it is necessary to create the following conditions: air temperature at the level of +1 ... + 3 ° С, relative humidity - 75–85%.
It is possible and even necessary to grow a pear in Belarus. Over the past 25–35 years, breeders have moved far ahead, introducing many new varieties - you just have to make your choice in favor of one, or better, several.